Books, Articles and Research
What is needed to deliver collaborative care to address comorbidity more effectively for adults with a severe mental illness?
This paper examines collaborative care services for people with severe mental disorders that have worked to address comorbidity and the relationship of mental disorders to homelessness, substance use disorders, unemployment, and other health issues in Australia. Researchers identified many key program components that help make integration of care most effective: shared treatment plans and client records, promotion of a "housing first approach," education for staff about comorbidity, and cross-sector collaboration among agencies when serving shared clients. Cross-sector collaboration is described as a real benefit for consumers and staff and as an effective strategy to move Australia toward having more holistic, socially inclusive mental health care.
Native American tribal communities provide hope for overcoming historical trauma
This Peers Envisioning and Engaging in Recovery Services (P.E.E.R.S.) article discusses the historical trauma experienced by many Native American tribal communities and the hope for overcoming it. Suicide, infant mortality, and unemployment rates of Native American tribal communities are among the highest in the country. The historical trauma intervention model described in this article takes an approach to healing that includes four main components: confronting the trauma, understanding the trauma, releasing the pain, and transcending the trauma.
Strategies to fight stigma toward people with mental disorders: Perspectives from different stakeholders
This study explores a variety of approaches to fighting negative and harmful attitudes and beliefs toward people with mental disorders by different stakeholders. After completing a survey, 15 categories and six themes of strategies to fight stigma emerged. The six themes included education, contact, protestation, person-centered, working on recovery and social inclusion, and reflexive consciousness. Education was the most common strategy mentioned; it is an approach directed toward the general population that aims to help bring understanding to others, correcting stereotypes and other misconceptions that feed negative and harmful beliefs about mental disorders. Also, about 15 percent of stakeholder survey respondents highlighted social inclusion as a strategy, with one clinician respondent stating that it is part of his work to reduce prejudice through integration of people with mental disorders into the community.
Governments discover need for mental health first aid
This article describes the collaborative efforts of the National Council, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and the Missouri Department of Mental Health to bring Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) to the United States. Just as traditional first aid works to prepare people to help others in emergency situations, the MHFA course teaches individuals how to recognize signs and symptoms of mental disorders and how to provide support. This article describes the widespread use of MHFA throughout the country. Since 2008, over 50,000 people have been trained in over 47 States and the District of Columbia, many of whom are public workers and citizens completing training for their jobs. The article also describes costs of this course and cost-effective ways employers can train employees.
Holdsclaw recounts fight with depression
The lived experience of Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) player Chamique Holdsclaw is described in this article. In 2006, she wrote an autobiography in which she shares details of her depression and a suicide attempt that changed her life. Through her autobiography she works to demystify mental disorders and show that anyone can have one. In 2010, she joined a panel on emotional and physical well-being sponsored by the NFL and the Morehouse School of Medicine that addressed various issues like dementia, depression, substance use disorders, and financial stress. Also, Holdsclaw is a spokesperson for Active Minds, an organization that works with students to change views of mental disorders on college campuses. She has found a way to educate others about mental health, continue to make the most of her athletic talent, and fight her depression by staying active, being open with the people around her, and working through her feelings.
Dolphins' WR Brandon Marshall talks mental health
This article describes Brandon Marshall's 2011 visit to Harvard University to speak with students about mental health. He is an NFL player who has struggled with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and has learned how to manage his mental disorders effectively. In the introduction to his presentation to Harvard students, it was noted that a study had recently found that 44 percent of Harvard students do not seek counseling support when they feel they need it because they do not believe it works. Marshall encouraged students to take the good from his lived experience with BPD and success in therapy and to seek help, explaining that he could relate to the pressure that undergraduates feel. It is Marshall's hope to continue to work toward countering any misconceptions people have about mental disorders and treatment and to use his celebrity to become the face of mental health and raise awareness.
Surfacing from depression
This USA Today article tells the story of Tiffany Clay, who at 18 received a swim scholarship to attend the University of Tennessee. Soon after she started college she began to feel overwhelmed and depressed. The many pressures of being a student-athlete while also adjusting to a new environment took a toll on her. She received support from her coach and a clinical social worker in the athletic department at her school. With major depression so prevalent among student-athletes, this article highlights the importance of building a support system on campus through which students can get the support they need.
Social firms: A means for building employment skills and community integration
In Europe, social firms are commercial businesses that create opportunities for work and social integration for people with challenges to employment. This article describes a case study in which a Norwegian social firm worked to provide employment for workers with mental and substance use disorders. The article also discusses the value of this approach as a training option, as a means of supporting social integration, and as a method of countering negative and harmful attitudes and beliefs about people with mental health problems.
Consumer empowerment and self-advocacy outcomes in a randomized study of peer-led education
In this study, researchers worked with over 400 participants to evaluate the effectiveness of Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals (BRIDGES), a peer-led education intervention program. This program works to empower individuals with mental disorders by teaching skills and providing information and support needed to become more involved in the decisionmaking process during treatment. Results yielded significant results with participants showing an increase in self-esteem, self-advocacy, and their ability to maintain these improvements over time.
A questionnaire survey on attitudes and understanding towards mental disorders
This study sought to gather information about attitudes and general understanding of mental disorders among people in Hong Kong, China. Questionnaires were used to collect data from over 1,000 participants who represented different age groups and socioeconomic statuses. Survey data showed increased knowledge and acceptance among survey participants who had regular contact with people with mental health conditions. The study concluded that people developing and implementing mental health awareness programs should incorporate strategies to increase social contact between individuals with mental disorders and those without these disorders in the general public.
WRAP® for the effects of trauma
Mary Ellen Copeland, Ph.D. developed the Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) as a tool to help people in recovery feel empowered, enhance their quality of life, and support them as they work toward life goals. In this book, she focuses on the role that trauma plays in the onset of various mental health conditions. She adapts the WRAP program for individuals who attribute their mental disorders to trauma, discusses what it means to be a trauma survivor, and shares examples of symptoms related to trauma, as well as ideas for wellness tools and action plans that work.
Stigmatising attitudes towards people with mental disorders: Changes in Australia over 8 years
This study examined attitudes toward individuals with mental disorders over the course of 8 years. Researchers surveyed over 6,000 participants and found that people's beliefs and attitudes regarding individuals with depression, depression with suicidal ideation, and schizophrenia had improved over time. They attribute this improvement in how people with mental disorders are perceived to campaigns that teach others about mental health.
WRAP Plus (formerly Living Without Depression and Manic Depression)
The Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) was developed by Mary Ellen Copeland, Ph.D., as a tool for individuals in recovery to help them feel empowered, better their quality of life, support them as they work toward life goals, and decrease negative feelings or behaviors throughout the recovery journey. In this book, WRAP Plus (formerly Living Without Depression and Manic Depression), she shares findings on mental health recovery, guidance on how to create a WRAP, and recovery stories from individuals who have thrived as a result of their own WRAPs.
America's plague of incarceration: A plague of prisons; the epidemiology of mass incarceration in America
This review of Ernest Drucker's book A Plague of Prisons: The Epidemiology of Mass Incarceration in America discusses the theme of Drucker's book, which is the significant individual and societal damage that has resulted from treating drug use as a criminal problem rather than as a public health crisis. The review also covers Drucker's recommendations for remedying this situation. Drucker discusses the need for prevention strategies including drug treatment, education, and job training; and concrete community supports to allow for reintegration upon release from prison. He also notes the need for drug law reforms and addressing of targeting of minorities and impoverished communities by law enforcement.
Asset development for people with psychiatric disabilities: The essential roles of financial security in recovery
The University of Illinois at Chicago's National Research and Training Center on Psychiatric Disability conducted the study described in this report. The study examined how effectively asset development programs called individual development accounts (IDAs) in combination with other support programs helped individuals with severe mental disorders to recover. Researchers conducted a literature review and provided findings from an IDA program providing general financial education to individuals with mental disorders. After highlighting the success of IDA programs for people with mental disorders and the need for increased access to such programs, researchers share recommendations for program development and future research.
Recognizing and addressing the stigma associated with mental health nursing: A critical perspective
In this article, the author discusses the negative and harmful attitudes and beliefs of people towards the field of mental health nursing and towards mental disorders. The author suggests ways to address these attitudes and beliefs within nursing education curricula.
Policy Responses to Social Inclusion: Towards Inclusion?
This article defines social exclusion and addresses various aspects of life related to the concept including the labor market, education, health, housing, and access to services. This publication goes on to describe policy responses to social exclusion and identifies themes and issues influencing policy initiatives. The ways in which past policy interventions have created or contributed to current issues are discussed as well as recommendations for developing effective policies to reduce exclusionary practices and evaluate these efforts.
Recovery as a journey of the heart
Sharing her own story of recovery from schizophrenia, and the stories of other consumers/survivors, Dr. Patricia Deegan emphasizes the importance of hope in the recovery process. She discusses the need for mental health professionals to see consumers/survivors as human beings who need supportive relationships, an expectation of recovery, and opportunities to grow and succeed.
Tools to Reduce Stigma of Mental Illness
The study, summarized in this article, piloted the use of "Narrative Enhancement Cognitive Behavioral Therapy" which was developed by Prof. Philip Yanos of City University of New York, Prof. David Roe, chair of the department of community mental health at the University of Haifa and Prof. Paul Lysaker of Indiana University School of Medicine. The results showed that subjects did experience higher self-esteem and a higher quality of life after using these tools to combat negative self perceptions (self-stigma).
Q&A: First lady Rosalynn Carter on America's mental health crisis
TIME interviewed Former First Lady Rosalynn Carter, advocate for improving the mental health system and ending the negative perceptions that keep many people from getting proper care. In the interview, Mrs. Carter comments on topics including psychiatric drugs for children and the needs of returning service members.
Mental health issues and the media: An introduction for health professionals
Morris provides students and professionals in nursing and allied professions, psychiatry, psychology, and related disciplines with an introduction to the ways in which the media shapes our attitudes about mental health issues. Covering the press, literature, film, television, and Internet, this comprehensive text includes practical advice and recommendations on how to combat negative images for service users, healthcare workers, and media personnel.
Evaluation of a middle school mental health education program: Executive summary
Wahl details his findings that the "Breaking the Silence" curriculum may help prevent the formation of negative attitudes and foster more accurate understanding and acceptance of people with psychiatric disorders among middle school aged children.
Speaking out for mental health: Collaboration of future journalists and psychiatrists
The authors assess the success of a project to encourage learning and collaboration between future psychiatrists (residents) and journalism students.
Effects of school-based interventions on mental health stigmatization: A systematic review
The authors conducted a systematic review of the published and unpublished scientific literature concerning the benefits and harms of school-based interventions, which were directed at students 18 years of age or younger to prevent or eliminate such stigmatization because of mental health problems.
Addressing racism: Facilitating cultural competence in mental health and educational settings
This resource provides information on strategies to eliminate racism and enhance the cultural competence of mental health and education systems and programs.
Pathways to recovery: A strengths recovery self-help workbook
This resource provides a guide to help consumers and consumer facilitators implement a mental health recovery-based approach to the management of mental health problems.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a consumer delivered anti-stigma program: replication with graduate-level helping professionals.
This study evaluated the consumer-delivered anti-stigma presentation In Our Own Voice (IOOV) with Masters of Social Work (M.S.W.) students, replicating a previous study with undergraduates. Thirty M.S.W. students completed pre- and post-presentation surveys to measure changes in attitude, knowledge, and social distance after the presentation. The results of this study further support the effectiveness of IOOV and indicate that graduate-level helping professionals can benefit from anti-stigma programs. Future research should go beyond self-report knowledge and attitude evaluation, test the efficacy of the components of the IOOV program (video, contact with presenters), and test the lasting effects of the program.
The military's war on stigma
In this article the author addresses the stigma that is felt by many service members of the United States' Armed Forces. The author also shares information on the stigma reduction efforts being implemented by the Deparment of Defense.
Stigma: Alive and well
In this article the author addresses the various campaigns developed to reduce stigma and their effects, as well as the continued work that is necessary to continue to counter the negative attitudes associated with mental illnesses.
Social support, activities, and recovery from serious mental illness: STARS study findings
Research on the role of social support in recovery from severe mental illness is limited and even more limited is research on the potential effects of participating in various activities. This study explores these relationships by analyzing baseline data from a 153-participant subsample in the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies.
The meaning and importance of employment to people in recovery from serious mental illness: Results of a qualitative study
Given the high rates of unemployment and underemployment among individuals with psychiatric disabilities, only a small number of studies have investigated the role work has in the lives of people who have been successful vocationally during their recovery from serious mental illness. This study sought to add to existing literature by determining how individuals perceive work and its effect on their recovery.
Social relationships as a decisive factor in recovering from severe mental illness
Recovery research often describes recovery from mental illness as a complex individual process. In this article a social perspective on recovery is developed. Researchers aim to ascertain which factors people regard as decisive to their own recovery and what makes them beneficial.
Stigma, poverty, and victimization: Roadblocks to Recovery for Individuals With Severe Mental Illness
This article addresses three roadblocks that exist towards recovery for individiauls with a mental illness including stigma, poverty, and victimization.
Ingroup perception and responses to stigma among persons with mental illness
Researchers tested the hypothesis that the way persons with mental illness perceive their ingroup (people with mental illness) in terms of group value, group identification and entitativity (perception of the ingroup as a coherent unit) shapes their reaction to stigma.
Social exclusion and mental health: Conceptual and methodological review
The concept of social exclusion is now widely used in discussions about the nature of disadvantage, and there are ongoing initiatives to promote social inclusion among those with mental health problems. To conduct a conceptual and methodological review of social exclusion, focusing initially on the origins and definitions of the concept and then on approaches to its measurement, both in general and in relation to mental health.
Passing for "normal": Features that affect the community inclusion of people with mental illness
The purpose of this study was to investigate specific features that indicate to community members that a person has a mental illness and the emotional reactions elicited by these features, in hopes of understanding barriers to the community integration of people living with mental illnesses.
Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults
The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger and older groups of Korean Americans. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs.
"Culture in psychiatric epidemiology: Using ethnography and multiple mediator models to assess the relationship of caste with depression and anxiety in Nepal
The study aimed to identify mediators underlying caste-based disparities in mental health in Nepal. Caste-based disparities in mental health in rural Nepal are statistically mediated by poverty, lack of social support, and stressful life events. Interventions should target these areas to alleviate the excess mental health burden born by Dalit/Nepali women and men.
Public stigma in relation to individuals with depression
This study assessed public stigma in relation to individuals with depression and possible factors associated with this phenomenon.
Addressing recovery from severe mental illness in clinical supervision of advanced students
This article begins a dialogue about the need to incorporate emerging knowledge about recovery as an attainable outcome for individuals with severe mental illness in curricula. The author proposes that clinical supervision from a recovery model is faced with at least four semi-distinct challenges: the detection and avoidance of stigma, the setting of consensually valid and personally relevant goals, the development of a therapeutic relationship, and the assessment of barriers to recovery and outcomes.
So I wouldn't feel like I was excluded: The learning experience in computer education for persons with psychiatric disabilities.
This paper describes an exploratory, qualitative examination of factors that aid in the acquisition of computer skills by 12 adults across 2 settings: a structured, professionally-taught program and a less structured peer-taught setting. These pilot findings highlighted the importance to teaching effectiveness of striking a balance between flexibility and structure, with computer knowledge having broader implications for social inclusion.
Metaphorical stores for education about mental health challenges and stigma
In this article, the author shares his experience using metaphorical stories when presenting to audiences. Various fables and other types of metaphorical stories are used in his presentations to bridge the gap of knowledge and to enable communication.
Perceived helpfulness of websites for mental health information : A national survey of young Australians
Despite the high risk of developing a mental disorder during adolescence, many young people fail to receive appropriate treatment from mental health professionals. Recent studies have found certain mental health information websites have improved mental health literacy and reduced symptoms of depression. However, studies exploring young people's perceptions of such resources still remain scarce. The current paper compared young people's preference for a website with self-help books and two face-to-face services-counselling and mental health services.
To seek advice or not to seek advice about the problem: The help-seeking dilemma for obsessive-compulsive disorder
The present study aimed to explore some variables hypothetically involved in the help-seeking process among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Touch in mental health nursing: An exploratory study of nurses' views and perceptions
The aim of this study was to explore psychiatric nurses' perceptions of physical touch with people who experience mental health problems. A descriptive exploratory qualitative research design was used. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 10 registered psychiatric nurses who met the inclusion criteria and were randomly selected to participate in the study.
The intricate link between violence and mental disorder
The objective of this study was to use a longitudinal data set representative of the US population to clarify whether or how severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression lead to violent behavior.
Patient ethnicity and perceptions of families and friends regarding depression treatment
"Black Americans are less likely than white Americans to seek professional treatment for depression. Whether treatment recommendations are sought and implemented by patients will be influenced by the role families and friends play in diagnostic acceptance and treatment decisions. Researchers investigated the association of ethnicity with the perceived need for treatment of depression by family and friends of older primary care patients.
The Role of Gender in Mental-Illness Stigma: A National Experiment
In a national, Web-based survey experiment, the authors' investigated the role played by gender in moderating mental-illness stigma. Respondents read a case summary in which the gender of the person was orthogonally manipulated along with the type of disorder; the cases reflected either a male-typical disorder or a female-typical disorder.
Attitudes towards mental illness among health care students at Swedish universities - A follow-up study after completed clinical placement
The aim of the study was to examine the changes in attitudes towards mental illness after theoretical education and clinical placement among students from university programmes preparing for different kinds of health professions.
A study of stigmatized attitudes towards people with mental health problems among health professionals
The project aimed to assess stigmatized attitudes among health professionals directed towards people with mental health problems. The Attitude to Mental Illness Questionnaire was used to assess participants' attitudes towards fictitious patients from a secure forensic hospital and patients with schizophrenia and substance use disorders.
An unholy alliance: substance abuse and social exclusion among assertive outreach patients
The object of this study is to investigate the relationship between social exclusion and outcomes of people with mental illness and substance abuse problems receiving assertive outreach treatment in London.
Physicians-in-training attitudes toward caring for and working with patients with alcohol and drug abuse diagnoses
This study is designed to identify the progression of attitudinal shifts over time of physicians-in-training toward caring for people who receive substance abuse treatment.
The specter of shame in substance misuse
This article provides an introduction to the concept of shame as it relates to substance misuse. Empirical research on shame and addiction and the theoretical and operational definitions that underpin them are discussed.
An investigation of stigma in individuals receiving treatment for substance abuse.
This study examined the impact of stigma on people in substance abuse treatment. Patients from fifteen residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities completed a survey focused on their experiences with stigma as well as other measures of drug use and functioning.
Language and the recovery advocate: Why we worry about words
In this article the author addresses the need for a "recovery-oriented vocabulary" in order to support recovery efforts and reduce the discriminatory policies that exist in communities.
Shame, not guilt, related to substance-abuse problems; Reducing feelings of shame may be key to more effective treatment
This study included three groups of participants with different levels of alcohol and drug problems. Two groups were primarily female college students about 20 years of age. The third group was comprised of predominantly male inmates from a metropolitan area jail who were, on average, 31 years of age.It appears that individuals who are prone to shame when dealing with a variety of life problems may also have a tendency to turn toward alcohol and other drugs to cope with this feeling.
Creating change: Using the arts to help stop the stigma of mental Illness and foster social integration
In this article the author hopes to create a passion for change and suggest a way that everyone can help stop stigma. However, research is needed; a design for a study to test this hypothesis is described.
Mental illness: Diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness
This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them.
Self-labeling and its effects among adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders
This study uses mixed-method interviews with 54 US adolescents receiving integrated mental health services in a mid-sized mid-Western city to examine: (1) the extent to which they use psychiatric terms to refer to their problems ("self-label"), and (2) the relationships between adolescents' self-labeling and indicators of psychological well-being (self-esteem, mastery, depression and self-stigma).
Stigmatization, social distance and exclusion because of mental illness: The individual with mental illness as a 'stranger'
In this article, the author states a lack of knowledge of causes, symptoms and treatment options of mental disorders in the public and a lack of personal contact with affected individuals can result in prejudices and negative attitudes towards them-and subsequently in stigmatization and discrimination.
Social exclusion and mental health: Conceptual and methodological review
The aim of this study was to conduct a conceptual and methodological review of social exclusion, focusing initially on the origins and definitions of the concept and then on approaches to its measurement, both in general and in relation to mental health.
What to do when you think an employee may need mental health help
This fact sheet list the steps you should take when you think an employee may need mental health help. Steps on education, language and encouraging dialogue are dicussed.
Mental health training for law enforcement professionals
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine topics of interest and preferred modalities of training for police officers in their work with persons with mental illness. Police officers across Massachusetts attending in-service mental health training were asked to rate the importance of potential mental health topics and the effectiveness of potential training modalities on a Likert-type scale.
Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness
The authors sought to gain further perspective on discrimination experienced by persons with mental illness by comparing self-reports of discrimination due to mental illness to self-reports of discrimination due to other group characteristics, such as race, gender, and sexual orientation.
Stigmatization in different mental health services: a comparison of psychiatric and general hospitals.
This article compares clients from psychiatric and general hospitals according to three dimensions of stigmatization, using data from structured questionnaires (n = 555). The results reveal that when background characteristics are taken into account clients of psychiatric wards of general hospitals report less stigma expectations and social rejection experiences in comparison with their counterparts in psychiatric hospitals.
Pathways between internalized stigma and outcomes related to recovery in schizophrenia spectrum disorders
This study empirically evaluated a model for how internalized stigma affects important outcomes related to recovery. A total of 102 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed measures of internalized stigma, awareness of mental illness, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, hopefulness, and coping. Path analyses tested a predicted model and an alternative model for the relationships between the variables.
Correlates of mental health service use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual mothers and prospective mothers
This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the mental health services used by women in the perinatal period and to identify potential correlates of mental health service use. Providers may benefit from additional knowledge about the LBG social context that is relevant to perinatal health, and from identifying a strong referral network of skilled and affordable counsellors.
Social distance towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria
The aim of the present study was to assess the lay public's attitude (social distance) towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria and examine the factors correlating with such an attitude.
Beliefs about depression and depression treatment among depressed veterans
In this article the authors states that they studied beliefs about depression and depression treatment among patients in a randomized trial of a chronic care intervention to improve depression treatment in the Veterans Administration healthcare system (n = 395).
How stigma interferes with mental health care
Many people who would benefit from mental health services opt not to pursue them or fail to fully participate once they have begun. One of the reasons for this disconnect is stigma; namely, to avoid the label of mental illness and the harm it brings, people decide not to seek or fully participate in care. Given the existing literature in this area, recommendations are reviewed for ongoing research that will more comprehensively expand understanding of the stigma-care seeking link.
Community integration of transition-age individuals: views of young with mental health disorders
This qualitative study examines the perceptions of young adults with mental health disorders of community integration.Implications of the study discuss roles for behavioral health services in encouraging empowerment, choices, and connections so that young people with mental health disorders may achieve their preferred levels of community integration.
Fighting the stigma caused by mental disorders: past perspectives, present activities, and future directions
In this article, the author investigates the important developments, and the growing public health interest in stigma reduction. This paper reflects on the past perspectives that have led us to our current position, reviews present activities and accomplishments, and identifies challenges that the WPA Section members will face in their future efforts to reduce the stigma caused by mental disorders.
Community perceptions of mental health needs in an underserved minority neighborhood
This community-based participatory study asked residents about the meaning of mental health, their perceptions of community mental health needs, barriers to accessing mental health care, and acceptability of mental health services that are integrated in primary health clinics.
"Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward and Professional Interactions With People With Mental Disorders
The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of pharmacy students toward people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether stigma predicts less positive attitudes toward concordant medication counselling.
Affiliate Stigma Among Caregivers of People with Intellectual Disability or Mental Illness
In this study two hundred and ten caregivers of people with intellectual disability (CPID) and 108 caregivers of people with mental illness (CPMI) were recruited to validate the 22-item Affiliate Stigma Scale with caregiving stress, subjective burden and positive perceptions.
Exploring the role and perspectives of mental health nurse practitioners following psychosocial interventions training.
The authors reports the findings of a study on the roles and perspectives of mental health nurse practitioners towards clients with enduring mental illness and their carers following completion of Psychosocial interventions (PSI) training.
Stigmatising attitude of medical students towards a psychiatry label.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a psychiatric label attached to an apparently normal person on the attitude of final year medical students at a Nigerian university.
Reducing self-stigma in substance abuse through acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, manual development, and pilot outcomes
This article describes the development of an acceptance based treatment (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-ACT) for self-stigma in individuals in treatment for substance use disorder.
An investigation of stigma in individuals receiving treatment for substance abuse
This study examined the impact of stigma on patients in substance abuse treatment. Patients from fifteen residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities completed a survey focused on their experiences with stigma as well as other measures of drug use and functioning.
Blame, shame, and contamination: The impact of mental illness and drug dependence stigma on family members
Family members of relatives with mental illness or drug dependence or both report that they are frequently harmed by public stigma. No population-based survey, however, has assessed how members of the general public actually view family members. Hence, the authors examined ways that family role and psychiatric disorder influence family stigma.
Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users
Researchers conducted this study to measure how discrimination may affect the mental and physical health among illicit drug users. The association of stigma and discrimination with poor health among drug users suggests the need for debate on the relative risks and benefits of stigma and discrimination in this context.
Mental health provider perspectives on co-occurring substance use among severely mentally ill clients
This qualitative study explores strategies used by mental health providers to address substance use problems among clients with serious mental illnesses and their perspectives on barriers to treatment and how treatment can be improved.
Public knowledge and assessment of child mental health problems: findings from the National Stigma Study-Children.
Child and adolescent psychiatry confronts help-seeking delays and low treatment use and adherence. Although lack of knowledge has been cited as an underlying reason, the authors aim to provide data on public recognition of, and beliefs about, problems and sources of help.
Mental health of young people: A global public-health challenge.
This article discusses the mental health of young people and proposes the development of a population-based, youth focused model, explicitly integrating mental health with other youth health and welfare expertise in order to remedy the situation.
Transformation of children's mental health services: The role of school mental health
This article examines the intersection of school mental health programs and the New Freedom Commission's recommendations in order to highlight the role of school mental health in the transformation of the child and adolescent mental health system.
Factors and measurement of mental Illness stigma: A Psychometric examination of the attribution questionaire
The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ). Based on responses from 774 college students, exploratory factor analyses were conducted followed by an examination of the reliability and validity of the newly formed factor scales.
Mental illness: Diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness
This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them. The findings were used to inform teaching resources used in an National Health Service Direct call centre.
Looking below the surface: Developing critical literacy skills to reduce the stigma of mental disorders
This article addresses the continued stigmatization that occurs by clinicians and the public, and argues for one solution: altering the way students are taught, moving beyond content toward a focus on enticing attitudinal shifts, such as empathy and personal commitment to social change.
Understanding and influencing the stigma of mental illness
In this article the researcher addressed three kinds of stigma that may act as barriers to personal aspirations: public stigma, self-stigma, and label avoidance. He also proposes methods that can be used to counter these stigmas.
Involving Consumers in the Development of a Psychoeducational Booklet About Stigma for Black Mental Health Clients.
This article documents the process of developing a consumer-derived psychoeducational booklet for Black adults contemplating mental health treatment. Black mental health consumers provided the content for the booklet through qualitative interviews about their experiences and then provided feedback once it was developed. Results from this project suggest that the strategy of involving consumers is a feasible approach to develop psychoeducational materials that address treatment barriers in underserved populations.
MILITARY: Marine commanders told to remove stress stigma
This articles provides brief information on information that was shared during a three-day Marine Corps conference in San Diego addressing post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injuries and the effects those illnesses have on family members. The author also discusses the new tactics that the military is implementing to reduce stigma related to mental illness.
How Children Stigmatize People With Mental Illness
In this article, the authors discuss their review of social cognitive development and ethnic prejudice,in order to learn about mental illness stigma among children. They then summarize the literature on stigma change, focusing on how specific strategies interact with what is known about social cognitive development and prejudice. Strategies that are reviewed include education, contact, social cognitive skills training, role play for empathy, peer interaction, protest and consequences.
Don't call me nuts! Coping with the stigma of mental illness
Don't Call Me Nuts! is a handbook for persons with mental illness. In its pages are discussions about dealing with self-stigma, knowing when or whether to disclose a mental illness, seven ways to foster personal empowerment, and legal and political remedies. The book explores the public's reaction to stigma through the methods of contact, education, or protest.
Can antistigma campaigns be improved? A test of the impact of biogenetic vs psychosocial causal explanations on implicit and explicit attitudes to schizophrenia
The present study investigates the impact of different psychoeducational interventions on the etiology of schizophrenia (biogenetic and psychosocial, vs a neutral condition) and on stigmatizing attitudes in medical and psychology students. Attitudes were assessed before and after the interventions on an explicit level using the stereotype questionnaire and the Social Distance Scale as well as on an implicit level, using the Implicit Association Test.
Anti-stigma films and medical students attitudes towards mental illness and psychiatry: Randomised controlled trial
The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of the effects of two anti-stigma films on medical students? attitudes to serious mental illness and psychiatry. Attitudes to serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness, social distance and psychiatry, were measured before and after watching the films and at 8 weeks.
Adolescents' reactions to universal and indicated prevention programs for depression: Perceived stigma and consumer satisfaction
This study examines reported stigma and program satisfaction following two school-based interventions aimed at preventing depression in 532 middle adolescents. The interventions were conducted either across entire classes by classroom teachers (universal delivery) or in small high risk groups by mental health professionals (indicated delivery).
Current Issues in undergraduate psychiatry education: The findings of a qualitative study
The purpose of this article is to identify the current issues in undergraduate psychiatric education in the United Kingdom for lead teachers at United Kingdom medical schools.
The construction of fear: Americans' preferences for social distance from children and adolescents with mental health problems
In this article, researchers organize a general model of stigma that synthesizes previous research. The researchers note that debates about children's mental health problems have raised questions about the reliability and validity of diagnosis and treatment. However, little research has focused on social reactions to children with mental health problems.
Comparison of African-Caribbean and White European young adults' conceptions of schizophrenia symptoms and the diagnostic label
This study aimed to investigate recognition and evaluation of schizophrenic symptoms across African-Caribbean and white European individuals. One hundred and twenty eight adult students from London colleges completed a questionnaire assessing stigma beliefs, evaluation of symptoms as mental illness and help-seeking beliefs, in response to symptom vignettes.
Reducing stigma by meeting and learning from people with mental illness
This study examines the effects of a public education program, developed in large part by consumers of mental health services, on the attitudes of high school students toward people with mental illnesses. A 1-hour informational session developed and facilitated by consumers of mental health services can significantly affect the attitudes of adolescents toward people with major mental illnesses.
Campus mental health: Know your rights
Campus Mental Health: Know Your Rights is a guide for college and university students to the legal rights one has when seeking mental health
services. It also explains what can be expected in interactions with mental health service providers and what obligations one might have.
The effect of first year mental health fieldwork on attitudes of occupational therapy students towards people with mental illness
This article suggest that despite recent initiatives to reduce stigma towards people with mental illnesses, negative attitudes persist both in the community and among health professionals. Fieldwork experience has been identified as the most powerful way of modifying the attitudes of health professional students. Research to date suggests that later placements tend to have a more positive effect on attitudes than do earlier placements.
Perceived stigma and mental health care seeking
This study used cross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of undergraduate and graduate students (N=2,782) at one university. A five-item scale was used to assess perceived public stigma toward mental health service use. Perceived need for help in the past 12 months and current presence of depressive and anxiety disorders were also assessed.
Higher education and psychiatric disabilities: National survey of campus disability services
This article reports the results of a survey of disability services offices at colleges and universities in 10 States.
Reaching out to high school youth: The effectiveness of a video-based antistigma program
This study evaluted the impact on Canadian high school students of a video-based antistigma program portraying real life experiences of individuals with schizophrenia. It also includes lesson plans to guide classroom discussions and active learning.
Impact of a television film on attitudes toward mental illness
This tudy investigated the impact of a prime time television film portraying a mentally ill killer on public attitdues of college students.
From Brother's Death, a Crusade
The death of her only brother, and the discovery that he had hidden his struggles with mental illness from his friends and family for years after he began hearing voices, rocked Ms. Malmon?s world, and by her junior year led her to start the student group that evolved into Active Minds Inc., a nonprofit organization with student-run chapters on 65 campuses, devoted to increasing awareness of mental illness.
Campus mental health services: Recommendations for change
College officials indicate that the number of students with serious mental illnesses has risen significantly. Media attention surrounding several high profile suicides has opened discussion of mental illness on campus. The authors summarize literature on college students and mental illness, including barriers to service receipt. Recommendations to improve campus-based responses for persons with a serious mental illness are presented on the basis of well-accepted service principles.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a consumer-provided mental health recovery education presentation
The current study investigated the effectiveness of the In Our Own Voice (IOOV) mental health education program in improving knowledge and attitudes about mental illnesses.
Will filmed presentations of education and contact diminish mental illness stigma?
This study examines the impact of two versions of anti-stigma programs-education and contact-presented on videotape.
Effects of an antistigma program on medical students' attitudes toward people with schizophrenia
The purpose of this study was to examine whether an antistigma program which consists of education, contact, and viewing a film that depicts an individual with schizophrenia, can change attitudes towards people with schizophrenia.
Stigma interventions and research for international health
This paper is one of several delivered at an international conference, Stigma and Global Health: Developing a Research Agenda, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health's Fogarty International Center (FIC) in September 2001. The paper includes a definition of health-related stigma and six research objectives, based on the stigma definition.
Design and initial results from a supported education initiative: The Kansas Consumer as Provider program
This article describes the Consumer as Provider (CAP) Training program at the University of Kansas School of Social Welfare, which creates opportunities for individuals with severe psychiatric disabilities to develop knowledge and skills to be effective as human service providers.
At issue: Stop the stigma: Call mental illness a brain disease
Educating the public that mental illness is a brain disease is a popular strategy for combating mental illness stigma. Evidence suggests that while such an approach reduces blame for mental illness, it may unintentionally exacerbate other components of stigma, particularly the benevolence and dangerousness of stigmas. Researchers propose a balanced approach that combats the various myths about mental illness with factual information.
Structural levels of mental illness stigma and discrimination
In this article, using a sociological paradigm, we apply the concepts of structural discrimination to broaden our understanding of stigmatizing processes directed at people with mental illness.
Report of the Surgeon General's conference on children's mental health: A national action agenda
This report introduces a blueprint for addressing children's mental health needs in the United States.
President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health
The Commission?s mission was to study the United States mental health service delivery system, including both private and public sector providers. The Commission advised the President on methods to improve the system. The Commission?s goal was to recommend improvements that will enable adults with a serious mental illness and children with a serious emotional disturbance to live, work, learn, and participate fully in their communities.
Drop the stigma: To keep kids from lashing out, parents must urge them to accept help
An article in which Tipper Gore addresses the need for parents and adults to "erase the stigma that prevents our kids from getting the help they need for their mental health."
Children's beliefs about people labeled mentally ill
A group of 104 third-grade students told stories in response to pictures of adults labeled mentally ill, physically disabled, or unlabeled, and answered questions regarding expected behavior of these adults. Results indicate that children of this age hold more overall negative attitudes about adults labeled mentally ill than about those designated as physically disabled or nondisabled.
Dispelling the stigma of schizophrenia: II. The impact of information on dangerousness
This study addressed a relatively neglected topic in schizophrenia: identifying methods to reduce stigma directed toward individuals with this disorder. The study investigated whether presentation of information describing the association between violent behavior and schizophrenia could affect subjects' impressions of the dangerousness of both a target person with schizophrenia and individuals with mental illness in general.
Empowerment and serious mental illness: Treatment partnerships and community opportunities
Two targets of empowerment are discussed in this paper: treatment partnerships and community opportunities. Strategies that enhance treatment partnerships include provider endorsement of recovery rather than promoting an approach that suggests poor prognoses, treatment plans that are collaborative rather than unilateral decision making that is perceived as coercive, and treatment services provided in the person's community rather than geographically or psychological distant institutions.
From whence comes mental illness stigma?
This paper seeks to answer two fundamental questions: What is the basis of the current form of mental illness stigma? and Why do western cultures stereotype people with mental illness as dangerous, incompetent and blameful, rather than something else?
The paradox of self-stigma and mental illness
Published narratives by persons with serious mental illness eloquently describe the harmful effects of stigma on self-esteem and self-efficacy. However, a more careful review of the research literature suggests a paradox; namely, personal reactions to the stigma of mental illness may result in significant loss in self-esteem for some, while others are energized by prejudice and express righteous anger.
Implications of educating the public on mental illness, violence, and stigma
This study examined how two types of public education programs influenced how the public perceived persons with mental illness, their potential for violence, and the stigma of mental illness.