Books, Articles and Research
The Roots of the Recovery Movement in Psychiatry: Lessons Learned
This book explores various fields, including psychology, social welfare, and civil rights, to help in describing the concept of recovery and what has been learned over the years about mental health practice. The authors discuss community-based care, the role of social inclusion in recovery, and recovery as a civil rights movement.
Entry on mental illness is added to AP Stylebook
This press release announces that, as of March 7, 2013, the Associated Press (AP) had added an entry on mental illness to the AP Stylebook to help address how journalists handle questions of mental illness in their coverage. This addition is a significant positive step for public education efforts around mental health that will help reduce negative perceptions and promote social inclusion of people with mental health problems.
A Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) is an empowering approach to one's recovery journey from mental health disorders that encourages peers to utilize their strengths and other self-help skills while in treatment. This book describes an approach to WRAP designed specifically for youth, encouraging them to overcome life's challenges and move into new opportunities.
Health homes: What healthcare's "one stop shopping" models mean for behavioral health-Medicaid health homes: Care coordination in the States
This article describes Section 2703 of the Affordable Care Act, which allows States to provide additional support, by way of the Medicaid "health home" option, to beneficiaries with two or more chronic conditions, including a mental or substance use disorder. The Medicaid "health home" option is based on the patient-centered medical home model, which supports recovery-oriented approaches including self-management support and shared decisionmaking.
Converting partial hospitals to community integrated recovery centers
In this paper, researchers emphasize the effectiveness of community-integrated recovery and other community activities in helping individuals in their recovery. This paper also explores how the transition of partial hospitals into recovery-oriented programs has become a part of systems transformation and some of the steps involved, such as technical assistance and strengths-based assessment of resources and needs.
From discrimination to social inclusion: A review of the literature on anti stigma initiatives in mental health
This report explores the ways individuals with mental health disorders are discriminated against and the many harmful attitudes and beliefs that have become a barrier for many within society. In this report, the Queensland Alliance suggests dialogue between individuals with mental disorders and the community as a means of bringing about positive change and building understanding. A successful social inclusion program is described as one that challenges citizens to reconsider their beliefs about mental health problems and build an understanding that values and respects differences. Additional recommendations for promoting social inclusion are made, including support of grassroots and local programming and framing of mental health problems as part of our shared community.
Developing the philosophy of recovery in South African mental health services
The growth in power and importance of the recovery movement around the world has had an increasing effect on how mental health care is viewed and implemented. This article explores positive outcomes associated with new understandings of recovery and the recovery movement and ways in which a recovery framework can be incorporated into mental health services in South Africa.
NAMI in our own voice and NAMI smarts for advocacy: Self-narrative as advocacy tool
In this column, the author examines the need for advocacy among mental health professionals and researchers and the role it could play in issues related to mental health disorders and other mental health professionals. The author discusses sharing one's recovery story as a means of raising awareness and educating others about mental disorders. He mentions two programs of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI), NAMI In Our Own Voice and NAMI Smarts for Advocacy.
Social inclusion: Its importance to mental health
This Mental Health Coordinating Council document outlines the importance of social inclusion for people with mental disorders and the role that community-based organizations can play in establishing a socially inclusive community. In addition to emphasizing the importance of a meaningful community connection, this publication also focuses on the need for supportive family and caregivers, strong consumer networks, and access to clinical services as a way of reaching social inclusion.
Meeting the behavioral health needs of veterans: Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom
With 30 percent of the 2 million active duty and reserve military personnel deployed since 2001 in need of mental health treatment, the challenge of addressing the mental health needs of veterans is a significant one. In this article, the National Council discusses different ways this challenge is being addressed. Although a number of approaches, including evidence-based care and cognitive behavioral therapy, have been shown to be effective in addressing posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression, the focus has also turned to increasing the number of veterans utilizing care and ensuring the availability of care for veterans. This article also explores the benefits of community-based mental health care investments in veterans and the potential economic benefits of addressing veterans' mental health needs.
Strategies to fight stigma toward people with mental disorders: Perspectives from different stakeholders
This study explores a variety of approaches to fighting negative and harmful attitudes and beliefs toward people with mental disorders by different stakeholders. After completing a survey, 15 categories and six themes of strategies to fight stigma emerged. The six themes included education, contact, protestation, person-centered, working on recovery and social inclusion, and reflexive consciousness. Education was the most common strategy mentioned; it is an approach directed toward the general population that aims to help bring understanding to others, correcting stereotypes and other misconceptions that feed negative and harmful beliefs about mental disorders. Also, about 15 percent of stakeholder survey respondents highlighted social inclusion as a strategy, with one clinician respondent stating that it is part of his work to reduce prejudice through integration of people with mental disorders into the community.
Hyde: Health care reform to offer new opportunities for consumers
This article at the Web site of Peers Envisioning and Engaging in Recovery Services (P.E.E.R.S.) covers the opening keynote at the 2012 Alternatives conference. The keynote was presented by Pamela Hyde, the Administrator for the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. In her talk, she shared her view on the Affordable Care Act and ways it will help support individuals with mental and substance use disorders in their recovery. Hyde discussed the importance of integrating behavioral and primary health care, emphasizing the impact that mental health issues can have on physical health. Beginning in 2014, the Affordable Care Act will mandate that mental and substance use disorder services be included in non-grandfathered individual insurance plans. Along with many other expectations of this new law, it is estimated that the law will provide access to coverage for 32 million uninsured Americans. Hyde shared her belief that this Act represents a significant shift in the way mental health treatment is viewed, in recognizing that individuals with mental and substance use disorders can take responsibility for their symptoms and make good treatment decisions for themselves.
Barriers and facilitators to mental health help-seeking for young elite athletes: a qualitative study
Oftentimes, adolescents and young adults do not seek help with mental disorders. Research has found many barriers and facilitators to getting help for young adults. In this study, researchers worked to identify specific factors that impact help-seeking among elite athletes. They found that negative and harmful attitudes and beliefs related to mental disorders were key in deterring youth from seeking support, as were negative past experiences of help-seeking. Positive feedback from and attitudes of others, including coaches, and positive encounters with providers were identified as important ways of getting young adults to seek mental health support.
Morbidity and mortality in people with serious mental illness
With individuals with serious mental illnesses dying 25 years earlier than individuals from the general population, this report explores contributing causes to this disparity, like smoking, obesity, and inadequate access to medical care. It also outlines recommendations for improvement. Some suggested solutions for addressing this public health problem include the implementation of care standards for prevention, screening, and treatment; better access and integration with physical healthcare services; and ongoing support for educational resources, such as toolkits, to encourage healthy choices and promote personal responsibility. This report also addresses provider agencies directly, highlighting the important role of a hopeful message of recovery and the support of wellness and personal empowerment to help promote individual recovery efforts.
Second in a series of three policy briefs on peer supports in mental health delivery systems. Policy issue #2: Introducing and supporting peer providers in traditional mental health provider networks
This issue brief is the second of three policy briefs from Independent Living Research Utilization in collaboration with the Human Services Research Institute. The series covers peer supports in mental health delivery systems. This issue brief discusses ways the concept of peer providers could be introduced to agencies, methods of addressing staff perceptions of peer providers, risk management, and other specific issues that could impact the employment of peer providers in agencies.
Third in a series of three policy briefs on peer supports in mental health delivery systems. Policy issue #3: Financing peer provided services
This issue brief comes from Independent Living Research Utilization in collaboration with the Human Services Research Institute and shares information on ways peer services can be financed, such as in-kind resources and State and Federal programs. It also discusses other key financial factors, including personnel costs, administrative costs, and billing for peer support services. Additionally, this brief provides examples from other States and explores approaches to funding that States can use for consumer-operated service programs (COSPs) and peer providers in traditional mental health agencies.
Under the microscope. Peer support: A valued part of recovery, wellness and health reform
This article by the National Association of County Behavioral Health and Developmental Disability Directors (NACBHDD) discusses the value of peer support and its role in demonstrating that recovery is attainable. This article recognizes peer support as not only a movement but also as a form of delivering care and an evidence-based practice. It also discusses the importance of expanding the ways peer support is utilized and incorporating peer support services into various types of reform, such as insurance and quality reform. In addition, it lists potential action steps to help advance peer support services, provides recommendations and solutions for what can be done at the national and State level to address health disparities, and discusses the importance of integrating behavioral health and primary care services, including the challenges and opportunities involved.
Recovery of evidence-based practice
This research paper explores various aspects of evidence-based practice (EBP), including methodologies, outcomes measures, and evidence standards, from a consumer recovery point of view. Through their examination, researchers worked to critique, inform, and support the expansion of EBP and reshape the study of EBP with the goal of encouraging service providers to provide recovery-oriented support for individuals with mental disorders.
Prevention, treatment, and recovery supports for those with substance use problems: Opportunities for enhanced access and quality of care
While recognizing the negative impact that substance use disorders can have on an individual, one's family, and community, this article explores ways to improve access to prevention and care for substance use disorders.
The mental health recovery movement and family therapy, part I: Consumer-led reform of services to persons diagnosed with severe mental illness
This article outlines key concepts of mental health recovery for marriage and family therapists. It provides a history and practical means of implementing a recovery-oriented approach with clients. The introduction of this approach comes as a result of a 2004 consensus statement from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that called for public mental health organizations to incorporate a recovery approach to their work with individuals with mental and substance use disorders.
An examination of the integration of Certified Peer Specialists into community mental health centers
In this report, researchers describe the formal role of Certified Peer Specialists (CPSs) in the mental health field. They explore the experience, responsibilities, and activities of a CPS. The recent incorporation of CPSs in community mental health centers is also examined. Researchers found overall that CPSs have been received well in mental health centers and are satisfied with their role within this setting.
Reaching out to the LGBT population
In this article, the Executive Director of Rainbow Heights Club, a New York program for individuals with mental disorders who identify with the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, shares his thoughts on what they have learned about providing support to LGBT people. He cites the U.S. Surgeon General's estimate that 2.6 percent of adults in general are living with a serious mental disorder and adds that this estimate combined with other statistics suggests that 11,000 LGBT adults with mental disorders live in New York City alone. The author goes on to describe the negative attitudes and harmful beliefs that Rainbow Heights Club members have faced, their use of support groups to address these obstacles, and the overall success of the Rainbow Heights approach to supporting LGBT people with mental disorders. Many of these successes involve high levels of consumer appreciation reflected in satisfaction surveys, increases in funding, and decreases in the need for hospitalization among Rainbow Heights Club members.
100 ways to support recovery: A guide for mental health professionals
This report was developed through the collaboration of Rethink and Mike Slade, a clinical psychologist who researched recovery practices throughout Europe, the U.S., and Australia. It includes recommendations to help mental health professionals incorporate recovery-oriented services into their work with individuals with mental disorders. The report outlines the foundations of recovery-oriented mental health services transforming the mental health system, and ways mental health staff can help individuals develop an action plan and recovery goals. The goal of the report is to translate the concept of the Personal Recovery Framework into practice.
Personal recovery and mental illness: A guide for mental health professionals
Personal Recovery and Mental Illness: A Guide for Mental Health Professionals explores recovery for individuals with mental disorders by way of 26 case studies from around the world. This book describes the shift from a traditional clinical approach of managing risk and relapse to a recovery focus that incorporates taking responsibility for one's life and developing goals. This guide for professionals describes ways to support recovery and outlines ideas to help professionals develop action plans to incorporate recovery-oriented practice approaches into their work. It also describes the concept of the Personal Recovery Framework, which emphasizes the person instead of the illness.
Governments discover need for mental health first aid
This article describes the collaborative efforts of the National Council, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, and the Missouri Department of Mental Health to bring Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) to the United States. Just as traditional first aid works to prepare people to help others in emergency situations, the MHFA course teaches individuals how to recognize signs and symptoms of mental disorders and how to provide support. This article describes the widespread use of MHFA throughout the country. Since 2008, over 50,000 people have been trained in over 47 States and the District of Columbia, many of whom are public workers and citizens completing training for their jobs. The article also describes costs of this course and cost-effective ways employers can train employees.
Integrated care for Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities: A blueprint for action; Consensus statements and recommendations
This report covers a meeting in August 2011 of 40 stakeholders committed to enhancing the lives of Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AANHPI) communities. The stakeholders met to discuss how to create a national agenda to review benefits of integrated care for AANHPIs. The group included providers, consumers, policy makers, and healthcare administrators in primary health care, integrated care, mental health, substance use, and disabilities. The Blueprint for Action discusses the need for integrated care to have a holistic, public health approach that works across the life span, as well as the need to have research and data that include AANHPIs. The blueprint includes recommendations to inform both governmental and non-governmental partners of culturally and linguistically responsive approaches and models of care.
Laker star gives mental health assist
Ron Artest, now known as Metta World Peace, of the Los Angeles Lakers took a bold step a few years ago when he thanked his psychiatrist on national television in an interview after a big win that led his team to the NBA championship. He has worked to manage his mental health issues for years through therapy with a sports psychiatrist, and he decided that, when he made his mental disorder public, that many people could benefit from knowing about his experience. His openness was a big step in helping increase knowledge and understanding of mental disorders, and acceptance and inclusion of people who experience them, in society.
The price of being strong: Risks to the mental health of athletes
This article explores how susceptible athletes are to psychological strain as they endure great pressure during competitions and throughout their careers. The prevalence of chronic trauma and traumatic brain injury in athletes is also discussed, as depression, suicide ideation, and loss of focus are common symptoms associated with these types of trauma. The likelihood of facing some forms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as athletic careers come to a close for some is also explored, as PTSD has the potential to trigger depression or feelings of grief in retiring athletes. As a means of countering many of these risks, the author emphasizes the need for people to change the negative and harmful attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs held about mental disorders and embrace the idea of help as available and attainable. The support roles of family, friends, coaches, and teammates in identifying symptoms and encouraging athletes to seek help are also highlighted.
Surfacing from depression
This USA Today article tells the story of Tiffany Clay, who at 18 received a swim scholarship to attend the University of Tennessee. Soon after she started college she began to feel overwhelmed and depressed. The many pressures of being a student-athlete while also adjusting to a new environment took a toll on her. She received support from her coach and a clinical social worker in the athletic department at her school. With major depression so prevalent among student-athletes, this article highlights the importance of building a support system on campus through which students can get the support they need.
The NSDUH report: Physical health conditions among adults with mental illnesses
This report highlights the connections between physical and mental health and makes recommendations for improving care coordination to bring about better health outcomes for people with mental and substance use disorders. Data collected and reported on by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in this report provides further insight into the higher rates of high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke among individuals with mental disorders. The report shares specifics on chronic health conditions, the use of health care, and the need for improved screening in both physical and mental health settings to ensure both mental health and physical health problems are identified and addressed regardless of which of these settings is the point of entry. The report also suggests the importance of communication among all members of an individual's healthcare team to help with mental and physical health symptoms experienced.
Resolution on APA endorsement of the concept of recovery for people with serious mental illness
A significant body of data now shows a rise in numbers of individuals with mental disorders improving over time, leading full, independent lives. With Federal and State agencies recommending a shift to treatment that is less symptom-oriented, the concept of recovery is expanding. In this resolution, a rationale for the concept of recovery is explored and recommendations on promoting this concept through the American Psychological Association (APA) are discussed.
Service providers' experiences and perspectives on recovery-oriented mental health system reform
This research article discusses the results of a qualitative study in which researchers gathered information about service providers' experience with and views of a recovery-oriented approach. Positive attitudes toward recovery-oriented reform, as well as challenges associated with this approach, are discussed, as well as recommendations for ways to support implementation of recovery-oriented practice.
Prevalence and risk of violence against adults with disabilities: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies
In this article, researchers report on findings from a review of prior studies examining the prevalence and risk of violence against individuals with disabilities in comparison to people who are not disabled. Although the types of disability and violence explored in the earlier studies varied, the authors of this article found that "adults with disabilities are at a higher risk of violence than are non-disabled adults, and those with mental illnesses could be particularly vulnerable."
WRAP® for the effects of trauma
Mary Ellen Copeland, Ph.D. developed the Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) as a tool to help people in recovery feel empowered, enhance their quality of life, and support them as they work toward life goals. In this book, she focuses on the role that trauma plays in the onset of various mental health conditions. She adapts the WRAP program for individuals who attribute their mental disorders to trauma, discusses what it means to be a trauma survivor, and shares examples of symptoms related to trauma, as well as ideas for wellness tools and action plans that work.
Supported education for adults with psychiatric disabilities
This article reports on the results of a study undertaken to assess the effectiveness of the Bridge Program, a 12-session supported education program for adults with mental health conditions. Study results showed that participation in this program, which includes a combination of skill development sessions and one-on-one mentoring, helped participants' academic skill levels improve, along with their social skills and levels of professionalism. At a 6-month followup, 63 percent of those who had completed the program had enrolled in an educational program or job training, had obtained employment, or were applying to a specific program in the next year.
WRAP Plus (formerly Living Without Depression and Manic Depression)
The Wellness Recovery Action Plan (WRAP) was developed by Mary Ellen Copeland, Ph.D., as a tool for individuals in recovery to help them feel empowered, better their quality of life, support them as they work toward life goals, and decrease negative feelings or behaviors throughout the recovery journey. In this book, WRAP Plus (formerly Living Without Depression and Manic Depression), she shares findings on mental health recovery, guidance on how to create a WRAP, and recovery stories from individuals who have thrived as a result of their own WRAPs.
In this position paper, Collaborative Support Programs of New Jersey (CSPNJ) discusses issues relating to the use of psychiatric medications and consumer choice in these matters. The paper addresses the importance of viewing medication as one treatment option among many, and of shared decisionmaking regarding medication use and choices. It also covers benefits and side effects of psychotropic medications and presents recommendations for psychiatric and psychological policy and practice including the use of alternative wellness approaches to support individuals with mental disorders. This position paper includes the story of the current Governing Board President of CSPNJ in which she shares her experience with depression and twelve hospitalizations and how her relationship with a particular psychiatrist helped in her recovery.
A permanent home that allows drinking helps homeless drink less
This article discusses the successful approach of one supportive housing program for people who have experienced long-term homelessness. The program allows residents to continue to drink alcohol while working towards their recovery from alcoholism. The author identified several factors which contributed to the program's success, including easier rules to follow, support from fellow residents and staff, and an overall attitude that does not look down on residents for drinking but rather invites them to be more open about it.
The role of treatment relationships in service engagement (Center on Adherence and Self-Determination Research and Practice Brief no. 5)
This brief discusses research to date examining the role of the therapeutic relationship in the treatment process and the various ways in which a strong working partnership between the consumer and his/her service provider can be established and maintained. It highlights the value of this relationship; how it helps consumers' decisions, wants, and needs to be heard during treatment; and how the elements of this relationship can positively or negatively impact treatment.
Let's get real: Real Skills for people working in mental health and addiction
Let's get real: Real Skills for people working in mental health and addiction is an implementation plan that works to ensure that mental health and addiction services are based on essential knowledge, skills, and attitudes that support recovery, are person-centered, and are culturally competent. Visitors to the Ministry of Health of New Zealand's Web site can download at no cost the full Let's get real implementation plan, which discusses the Let's get real framework, planned steps, and the roles of providers and organizations.
The lived experience of using psychiatric medication in the recovery process and a shared decision-making program to support it
This article describes a new approach that supports shared decisionmaking between individuals with mental disorders and their psychiatrists regarding psychiatric medication options and use. Researchers discuss challenges involved in making decisions regarding medications, the peer-run decision support center and associated software program components of this new intervention designed to support shared decisionmaking, and the intervention's impact on the recovery process.
Shared decision-making in mental health care: Practice, research, and future directions
This report discusses the overall concept and value of the practice of shared decision-making (SDM) in the treatment of mental disorders. SDM is an approach that recognizes the importance of consumers' assuming an active role in communicating with care providers about their needs and preferences and ultimately assuming responsibility for making decisions about their own care. Researchers describe SDM as having the potential to enhance care and recovery. Research on SDM is explored in depth, and future steps and recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.
Prejudice, social stress, and mental health in lesbian, gay, and bisexual populations: conceptual issues and research evidence.
This article examines research evidence that shows lesbians, gay men, and bisexuals (LGB) having higher rates of mental disorders than heterosexuals. In seeking to understand this disparity, the author has developed and presents a framework to examine the factors contributing to this increased prevalence. He suggests that minority stress, which includes prejudice and discrimination experienced or anticipated by LGBs as well as a number of other factors, makes for a hostile and stressful environment that leads to the development of mental disorders.
Gender differences in mental health
In an effort to identify effective approaches to treating and preventing mental disorders, this paper examines gender differences in various mental disorders including eating disorders, schizophrenia, and depression.
Building partnerships: Conversations with communities about mental health needs and community strengths
This report produced by the UC Davis Center for Reducing Health Disparities examines the needs of underserved communities, strategies to prevent mental disorders, and ways to address mental health needs specifically while also identifying strengths within the community. Researchers partnered with agencies, members, and advocates within specific communities to give them an opportunity to express their view of what is needed in their community with the goal of helping counties develop their plans and programs for the prevention of mental disorders. Participants' responses highlighted a number of key factors within these communities, including the prevalence of violence and trauma, the role of social conditions such as poverty and unemployment as being a hindrance to community well-being, and the lack of affordable services available in communities.
Idaho suicide prevention hotline: Analysis of options for decision making
With the current suicide rate in Idaho at 11th in the nation, this report was prepared as a means of helping decisionmakers understand the need for a suicide hotline and identifying ways a suicide hotline might be created. Some key topics this report discusses include potential hotline costs, hotline benefits and effectiveness, training standards, confidentiality, and a marketing plan.
Integration of mental health, substance use, and primary care services: Embracing our values from a client and family member perspective
The focus of this paper is to provide perspectives of clients and family members about the integration of treatment of mental and substance use disorders within primary care settings. This paper discusses core values such as wellness-focused and person-centered treatment, the importance of involving persons with lived experience and family members in local planning efforts, and recommendations for stakeholders and for self-advocacy/self-management support. It also provides information, resources, and tools to support wellness, recovery, and hope.
Adults traumatized by child abuse: What survivors need from community-based mental health professionals
In this study, researchers seek to gain an in-depth understanding of the impact of childhood abuse from the adults who have experienced it. They then describe the interventions and trauma treatment approaches that are the most effective. Study participants highlighted the need for trauma-based treatment that is easily accessible and for community-based therapists who are informed about trauma issues.
Stigma and quality of life as experienced by people with mental illness
Researchers examined ways individuals with mental disorders in New Zealand have experienced discrimination and negative and harmful attitudes and beliefs. Study participants reported experiencing discrimination and also reported discontent with their quality of life. Researchers discussed the implications for providers in their clinical assessment and ongoing work with consumers.
Recognizing and addressing the stigma associated with mental health nursing: A critical perspective
In this article, the author discusses the negative and harmful attitudes and beliefs of people towards the field of mental health nursing and towards mental disorders. The author suggests ways to address these attitudes and beliefs within nursing education curricula.
Models for developing trauma-informed behavioral health systems and trauma-specific services
This report explores some history of trauma-informed services in State mental health systems, describes guidelines for establishing a trauma-informed mental health service system, and also describes the variety of trauma-informed service models and approaches for State systems and providers. It includes a broad range of models including trauma-informed models for parenting, for working with child abuse survivors, and for developing trauma-informed service systems and organizations.
Risking connection: Helping agencies embrace relational work with trauma survivors
This paper describes the Risking Connection approach to working with trauma survivors, an approach that promotes hope, empowerment, and recovery. It discusses how this program has helped improve providers' own awareness and understanding of traumatized individuals. It provides a history of the Risking Connection Model, the role that the relational process had on the development of this model, and a brief outline of how a Risking Connection training would be conducted.
Assessment of trauma in primary care
The author of this article discusses efforts made in primary care medicine to assess trauma, outlines the need for a new scientific approach to evaluate the impact of traumatic experiences, and says the individual's traumatic experiences must be a focus of clinical thinking. The effects of trauma history should be considered in the medical history, physical exam, and lab studies, according to the author.
Mental health first aid course removes stigmas associated with mental illness
This article describes the mental health first aid program, which assists individuals interested in learning how to better respond to individuals who may be experiencing a mental health crisis with responding to some signs and symptoms related to mental disorders. This article lists a five-step action plan associated with this program; some examples of who might benefit most from a mental health first aid course, including family members and healthcare providers; and some ways training in this approach has enhanced people's understanding of mental disorders by teaching people how to respond appropriately to unique situations associated with mental disorders.
The Trauma Recovery and Empowerment Model (TREM): Conceptual and practical issues in a group intervention for women
This article covers TREM, a group intervention approach designed for women trauma survivors with severe mental disorders. A trauma-informed treatment approach, TREM is attuned to the needs of survivors of physical and sexual abuse. It focuses on the present and helps survivors develop recovery skills. Also, TREM groups are guided by what is known about how women experience and address the challenges of trauma.
Psychiatry and recovery-oriented practice: A situational analysis
This report provides an overview of a collaborative project of the American Psychiatric Association, the American Association of Community Psychiatrists, and an advisory group comprising psychiatrists, other mental health professionals, and consumers. This project worked to develop and share educational materials for psychiatrists to encourage their use of recovery-oriented practices. SAMHSA's 10 recovery components are discussed and barriers, strengths, and opportunities associated with this approach are examined. Also, in this report, psychiatrists' current understanding and use of recovery-oriented practices is explored.
Population mental health: Evidence, policy, and public health practice
This book explores the evidence base for including issues related to mental disorders as a priority in the public health agenda. It discusses the connection between physical and mental disorders, the impact of health policies on the care of people with mental disorders, some of the barriers to developing a revised public health approach to mental disorders, and the use of public health intervention models.
Jail diversion & trauma recovery - Priority to veterans
This article describes the Jail Diversion and Trauma Recovery initiative, which works to offset the increased risk of returning service members becoming involved in the justice system as a result of posttraumatic stress disorder. This initiative has also positively influenced how communities address mental and substance use disorder needs of veterans involved in the justice system. This article explores pilot site activities of grant awardees working at the community and State level to address service and other training needs necessary for successful jail diversion efforts.
Improving the physical health of people with serious mental illness: A systematic review of lifestyle interventions
This literature review explores the quality of research in the U.S. on the topic of unmet health needs of people with mental disorders and lifestyle interventions that could improve overall health and reduce premature morbidity. Through the review, researchers were also able to summarize intervention strategies, explore various health outcomes, and assess the role that race, ethnicity, and culture played in these interventions.
Mental health and social inclusion: Making psychiatry and mental health services fit for the 21st century
For this publication, a group employed by the Royal College of Psychiatrists of the United Kingdom set out to examine social inclusion among individuals with mental disorders. It not only describes social exclusion, psychiatry, and current treatment of consumer/survivors in the UK but it expands on the importance of psychiatrists making an effort to adapt their skills to become more socially inclusive. This publication also discusses social inclusion of individuals with mental disorders and how it relates to recovery, treatment services, policy, and specific challenges for the 21st century.
Designing healthy communities
This book discusses tools for individuals looking to bring about positive change within their communities. It explores ways in which the design of an environment influences the health of individuals and also discusses issues relating to social and environmental justice. Obesity and a variety of additional preventable diseases are addressed, while the author also takes time to emphasize best practices for countering these conditions.
Promoting mental well-being and social inclusion through art: Evaluation of an arts and mental health project
Researchers in this study review the benefits reported by consumers following their participation in introductory art courses offered by an arts and mental well-being project. Questionnaires used at the start and end of courses showed that participants recognized improvements in well-being and social inclusion.
Recovery model: A Christian appraisal
This article examines recovery from the perspective of a Christian worldview, in the context of Christian theology and psychology. The author discusses how others' negative attitudes and harmful beliefs regarding people with mental disorders can be a barrier to recovery, the concept of empowerment as being fundamental to Christian theology, and the role that key Christian concepts such as sin, grace, and redemption play in recovery from a Christian perspective. The article examines this issue including implications for individuals, communities, and providers.
Effectiveness of peer support in reducing readmissions of persons with multiple psychiatric hospitalizations
This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of employing peer support as a means of decreasing reoccuring psychiatric hospitalizations. Based on study results, researchers concluded that using peer mentors is an effective approach to reducing both the frequency and length of hospitalizations for individuals with high likelihoods of being readmitted.
Mental health crisis: What do service users need when in crisis?
Researchers in this study explored the crisis needs of individuals seeking support services for mental disorders. One goal of the study was to learn whether there was strong support for the development of residential crisis services, an alternative to hospitalization. Study results indicated that 93 percent of both consumers and providers supported the idea of residential crisis services. In addition, participants' responses suggested that being able to express concerns and participating in decisions during treatment were also important.
What do consumers say they want and need during a psychiatric emergency?
This article is based on results of a survey seeking consumer perspectives and recommendations on enhancing emergency psychiatric care. Most participants had had negative experiences in hospital emergency rooms and suggested that specialized psychiatric emergency services be developed. Additional recommendations from consumer participants for improving emergency care included the incorporation of verbal interventions, taking a collaborative approach where consumers would be treated with respect and involved in treatment decisions, and an increase in the use of peer support services.
A case study of the peer-run crisis respite organizing process in Massachusetts
This case study examined the experiences of a group of consumers working to implement peer-run crisis respites (PRCRs) in Massachusetts. It includes information on the evidence base supporting PRCRs and different models of PRCRs as well as the grassroots organizing process used by the group to advocate for implementation of PRCRs in Massachusetts. The goal is to help inform groups in other communities interested in gaining support for and implementing PRCRs.
Reintegration problems and treatment interests among Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans receiving VA medical care
This study sought to describe the frequency and types of community integration issues among Iraq and Afghanistan combat veterans receiving medical care from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Researchers also set out to learn more about the connection between probable PTSD and reintegration problems and interests in treatment, as well as identifying interests in interventions to assist with readjustment to community life. Results estimate that 25% to 56% of combat veterans who use VA services experienced "some" to "extreme" difficulty in social functioning, productivity, and community involvement, with about 96% of participants expressing an interest in receiving servics to assistance with readjustment to civilian life.
Tenemos Voz National Latino Consumer Network
This network is comprised of Latinos with mental and substance use disorders who work to promote holistic approaches to health and wellness in recovery through equal access to treatment. The network engages in advocacy to influence policy, eliminate disparities, and improve treatment outcomes. It also provides educational and networking opportunities and support for consumer/survivors.
The Community Defined Evidence Project (CDEP)
This project is a collaborative effort between the National Latino Behavioral Health Association (NLBHA) and National Network to Eliminate Disparities in Behavioral Health (NNED) to advance understanding of effective community-based practices for Latinos. The project plans to develop an evidence base that uses key cultural and community indicators and to use this information to influence research, evaluation, policymakers, and funders to support efforts to implement and use community-based practices to reduce disparities and improve both access and quality of care for Latinos..
Policy Responses to Social Inclusion: Towards Inclusion?
This article defines social exclusion and addresses various aspects of life related to the concept including the labor market, education, health, housing, and access to services. This publication goes on to describe policy responses to social exclusion and identifies themes and issues influencing policy initiatives. The ways in which past policy interventions have created or contributed to current issues are discussed as well as recommendations for developing effective policies to reduce exclusionary practices and evaluate these efforts.
Reaching Out: An Action Plan on Social Exclusion
The Action Plan described in this article works to counter the experiences of many who have been socially excluded in the UK. The plan shifts from focusing on treatment to focusing on prevention to break the cycle of disadvantage. This plan has five key guiding principles: to develop better identification and earlier intervention; to systematically identify successful approaches; to promote collaboration among agencies; to tailor programs of support developed based on those in need; and to support achievement and manage underperformance.
What Are Peer Recovery Support Services?
This paper is an introduction to peer recovery support services, which are designed and delivered by individuals who have experienced substance use disorders and recovery. It describes ways these services engage people in their recovery process and reduce the chance of a relapse. Other aspects of peer recovery support services discussed are the types of peer support, its adaptability, the value of these services, and key principles on which these services are based.
The Imperative of a New Approach to Warrior and Veteran Care
Recognizing the alarming rates of depression, brain injury, and suicide among active service members and veterans, this policy brief describes the need for: a new model for dispersing federal funds; changes to the relationship between the Department of Defense (DOD) and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA); and inclusion of private-sector stakeholders, such as nonprofit organizations, in addressing these issues. It provides current statistics on service member and veteran mental and substance use disorders and recommendations for the White House, the DOD, and the VA to improve care.
Introduction to "Building communities from the inside out: A path toward finding and mobilizing a community's assets"
This publication is an introduction to a guide on rebuilding troubled communities that emphasizes identifying and building upon community strengths rather than focusing on deficits within the community. It includes success stories of communities that have thrived and the role that the asset-based community development strategy has played in developing steps toward community growth. This introduction explores ways the traditional approach has failed communities, identifies problems, and discusses solutions and assets of a community, including those of individuals, associations, and institutions.
Building the capacity of the homeless service workforce
This article discusses the importance of addressing the professional development needs of homeless service providers to strengthen this workforce and thereby facilitate improvement in the delivery of services to individuals who are homeless. Challenges of work in homeless services such as low wage environments and the need to confront negative public attitudes are discussed. Researchers also describe the role of developing supportive organizations, providing competency-based training, and encouraging collaboration among Federal agencies in enhancing and developing careers in homeless services.
GLBTQI Mental Health: Recommendations for Policies and Services
Gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, questioning, or intersex (GLBTQI) individuals are often reported to have limited access to behavioral health services or to experience unwelcoming environments where behavioral health programs and rehabilitative care is provided. This publication makes recommendations for policy makers and service providers to ensure equal access to and quality services for GLBTQI individuals and to promote recovery and community integration. It includes an assessment of barriers experienced by GLBTQI individuals seeking behavioral health care and suggestions for ways to address these barriers.
Issues of access to and inclusion in behavioral health services for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning and intersex consumers
In recognition of behavioral health disparities experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, questioning, and intersex (LGBTQI) individuals, this article discusses key goals of an LGBTQI initiative to reduce inequalities in behavioral health outcomes. These goals focus on prevention of mistreatment, culturally affirmative environments of care, and clinically competent behavioral health care for LGBTQI consumers. Recommendations for data collection and trainings are made and a vision is outlined for inclusion that is responsive to the needs of LGBTQI individuals.
Racial Disparity in Mental Health Services: Why Race Still Matters
This book explores ways in which various factors such as racial identity, substance abuse, and socioeconomic conditions relate to differences in health and behavioral health services provided to different racial groups. Throughout this book, a number of experts from different disciplines discuss how various populations, including adolescents, the elderly, and minorities in general, experience inequality in today's system. Some specific topics discussed include, culture and race in provider-client relationships, cultural competence and improving mental health in African American women, and race/ethnicity and adolescent substance abuse.
Strategies for Strengthening Substance Use Prevention, Treatment, and Recovery Systems: Provider Networks and Impact on the Workforce
Due to diminished resources and high outcome demands, current trends of today suggest that addiction agencies must find new methods of collaborating in order to maximize resources, retain staff, and provide higher quality services based on evidence-based practices. This report explores the various collaborative efforts of nine successful addictions provider networks across the U.S. These nine case studies examined demonstrate strategies and solutions for addressing common challenges thoughout the addictions system. This report also includes recommendations viewed as important to consider in forming a network.
Leading Change: A Plan for SAMHSA's Roles and Actions 2011-2014
This publication describes SAMHSA's plans for 2011 through 2014 to help people with behavioral health problems and their families. Their main focus is to help in developing strong communities, prevent behavioral health problems, and promote better health for all Americans. This plan is outlined by the eight new Strategic Initiatives that will guide SAMHSA's work, each Initiative with its own purpose, specific goal, action step, and measure for determining success.
Recovery Begins with Hope
This report focuses on how to make significant change in behavioral health services and policies. It describes the journey of two mental health trusts that have implemented the recovery approach in their policies and are working to put it into practice. The recovery approach is based on three key principles: hope, respect, and opportunity. This report does not suggest recovery as an alternative to clinical treatment but rather a more positive method of supporting behavioral health consumers that values collaboration and individuals' ability to learn to relate and reorganize their lives.
Successfully exiting homelessness: Experiences of formerly homeless mentally ill individuals
This study sought to identify and describe the processes of change which contribute to homeless individuals obtaining and maintaining stable housing. The researchers examined the impact of a number of factors including employment difficulties, behavioral health problems, and relationships with family, friends, and service providers. A key finding was that relationships with family, friends and service providers were central to achieving stable housing.
"A disease like any other?" A decade of change in public reactions to schizophrenia, depression, and alcohol dependence
Over the last 15 years, behavioral health conditions have increasingly been described as medical diseases by behavioral health professionals, advocates, and policy makers as a way to counter lack of service use and negative and harmful attitudes and misconceptions. This study examined the effects that this neurobiological explanation has had on the rate of those seeking treatment and on the general public's attitude toward people with mental health challenges during the period of 1996-2006. Results suggest that this medical disease approach to understanding behavioral health problems has led to increased support for services but has not significantly reduced negative and harmful beliefs and attitudes. Researchers suggest that to reduce negative attitudes and discrimination, providers and advocates must shift to an emphasis on competence and inclusion.
Americans believe in prevention and recovery from addictions
This SAMHSA report discusses the findings of a survey regarding the general public's perceptions relating to prevention and recovery from substance use disorders and their attitudes towards people who have substance use problems. The report found that a majority of Americans have positive feelings about prevention and recovery from substance use problems, with three-fourths of the population believing that recovery is possible from addiction to alcohol, prescription drugs, and marijuana.
No health without mental health
This document from the United Kingdom discusses an outcome strategy for behavioral health, highlighting the significant influence behavioral health has on all other aspects of life. It describes ways in which quality behavioral health and wellness translate into social and economic benefits for society as a whole, stressing the need for both government and community support to ensure these outcomes. Some agreed-upon goals developed through collaboration of governmental departments, local organizations, and behavioral health professionals are that more people will have positive experiences while provided care and support, that there will be a reduction in negative and harmful attitudes towards people with behavioral health issues, and that more of those with behavioral health problems will have good physical health.
Researching recovery from psychosis
In this article, researchers explore individuals' experiences of recovery from behavioral health problems. They identify three key trends in the process of recovery: rebuilding self, rebuilding life, and hope for a better future. These key elements lend support to a definition of recovery as a gradual process of learning to cope and regain control of one's life instead of an absolute cure. This article also describes implications for behavioral health professionals and future practice.
Stigma Research and Action Journal
This new, open-access international journal includes both peer-reviewed research and first-person accounts related to discrimination and prejudice based on health conditions, disabilities, or membership in a marginalized cultural or social group. The first issue includes research papers and reports on the following topics: HIV/AIDS, harsh attitudes and prejudices among health workers, obesity bias in adolescents, and internalized negative beliefs and attitudes in relation to behavioral health problems.
Ending chronic homelessness: Cost-effective opportunities for interagency collaboration
This article explores the opportunity for Federal policies and programs to change the approach to assisting people who are homeless. It discusses both cost savings that could be realized and improved outcomes in maintaining housing stability, outcomes that would benefit both individuals and the community. It suggests new ideas and approaches to directing policies and practices as a means of enhancing the current approach to addressing homelessness.
Long-term care fundamentals No. 5: Implementing Olmstead in California
This brief provides background information on the 1999 U.S. Supreme Court Olmstead decision which found that the unnecessary institutionalization of people with disabilities is a violation of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. Implications of this decision are discussed, as well as States' efforts toward expanding home- and community-based options for individuals with disabilities including a detailed discussion of efforts undertaken within the State of California.
Joint Statement of the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Department of Justice: Reasonable accommodations under the Fair Housing Act
This statement outlines the responsibilities of the Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in enforcing the federal Fair Housing Act, which prohibits housing discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, familial status, and disability. It describes some of the common complaints that HUD and DOJ respond to regarding the Fair Housing Act as well as common questions and answers regarding the rights and duties of people with disabilities and housing providers under the Act relating to reasonable accommodations.
A common purpose: Recovery in future mental health services
This paper seeks to define recovery and discuss what recovery means for the development of future behavioral health services. It addresses ways the recovery approach can be beneficial for individuals' overall health and for social care services, i.e. services which address needs associated with the health and welfare of the population. The paper encourages mental health professionals, consumers, and friends and family of consumers to work toward enhancing current standards and making recovery a key component of developing services.
Peer-run supportive housing for families
This article describes the approach of Housing Options Made Easy, (HOME) Inc., a consumer-run supportive housing program. The article discusses the service approach HOME's peer providers use to support residents in achieving personal recovery and the positive outcomes experienced by residents including fewer and shorter hospital stays and reduced use of crisis services. The article also discusses system-level benefits realized through this program including cost savings, a reduction in negative attitudes, and improved overall effectiveness of the area's mental health delivery system.
Does the scientific evidence support the recovery model?
The recovery model is a social movement that has continued to impact the development of mental health services worldwide. Some of its basic principles include optimism about outcome from psychosis, empowerment of individuals with behavioral health problems, and collaborative decision-making regarding treatment. This editorial highlights data that suggest positive outcomes for consumers with schizophrenia when optimism is incorporated into recovery. The editorial discusses how empowering individuals throughout recovery can enhance the process. The research shows that employment helps people recover from psychosis and demonstrates the importance of addressing the negative, internalized perceptions of behavioral health problems during recovery. This editorial goes on to address other ways in which these basic recovery model principles are supported by scientific research.
Involving patients in decisions during psychiatric consultations
This research study examined the level to which psychiatrists involve consumers in therapeutic decisions. Findings showed low levels of consumer involvement among psychiatrists. The researchers encourage psychiatrists to develop involvement skills and highlight the role that consumer participation in treatment decisions can have on recovery.
Accommodating Veteran Employees with Mental Health Issues: Addressing Post Traumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury
This report provides resources and ideas on workplace accommodations for returning veteran employees with behavioral health problems. It is geared towards employers, employee assistance professionals, and others who support veteran employees. The report highlights key indicators that an employee may need support, provides statistics on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI), and guidance on how to develop appropriate workplace accommodations.
Housing First: The Pathways Model to End Homelessness for People with Mental Illness and Addiction
This manual provides a strong basis for introducing the evidence-based Housing First approach in addressing homelessness. It includes guidance in developing policies and programs. The DVD offered with this manual demonstrates the concepts shared, also including success stories of clients, model teams in action, and useful tips.
Engagement and Self-Determination: A Manifesto
In this Center on Adherence and Self Determination (CASD) Research and Practice brief, the CASD describes why they focus on adherence and self-determination, highlighting the importance of individuals choosing their own interventions. This brief also discusses the influence of care seeking and service participation on individuals' goals and ways in which recovery has influenced people's understanding of behavioral health problems and the role of self-determination in service systems.
Report from Barcelona: Fostering social inclusion to end homelessness
This article discusses ways in which Barcelona, Spain has responded to the millions of people in the city who have been strongly impacted by the global economic recession. It describes the increased staffing of homeless assistance programs in Barcelona since the recession and the increase in the availability of emergency housing in the city. This article also describes how the city government, charities, and non-governmental organizations have banded together to launch a social inclusion initiative to address the needs of citizens.
Journal of Primary Prevention "SPECIAL ISSUE: Homelessness & Mental Illness"
This journal issue includes 16 articles that focus on the issues of homelessness and behavioral health problems. Articles included in this issue focus on a variety of related topics including homelessness prevention, Critical Time Intervention, homelessness among veterans, reemployment, and the role of family contact and housing stability.
Recovery: A Philosophy of Hope and Resilience
This newsletter emphasizes programs that support recovery from substance abuse and addiction, research on recovery, and National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month.
The Role of Social Capital in Building Healthy Communities
This report focuses on the role that community-based institutions play in developing healthy communities and encouraging social capital. Information from case studies done in four U.S. cities are used to address the different views of social capital, local social service delivery systems, and influence of faith communities in providing support to families and communities.
Shared decision-making preferences of people with severe mental illness
In this pilot study, researchers examined consumers' preferences regarding shared decision making. Shared decision making empowers consumers, providing them with information and choices to help them make informed decisions and actively participate in their treatment. Researchers concluded that most consumers prefer greater participation in mental health treatment decisions including decisions regarding medication options than they are afforded.
Shelter from the storm: Trauma-informed care in homelessness services settings
As the field of homeless services has advanced, providers have increasingly realized the importance of addressing long-term healing for people who have experienced homelessness, many of whom are trauma survivors. Trauma-Informed Care (TIC) provides a framework that can be used to support trauma survivors in homeless service settings and represents a promising area for increasingly effective and sensitive service approaches for highly vulnerable people. This paper explores the evidence for TIC within homelessness service settings and examines implications for providers, programming, policy, and research.
Homeless services in the U.S.: Looking back, looking forward: An open letter to policymakers, advocates, and providers
In this editorial, the author suggests strategies for developing inclusive, comprehensive approaches to ending homelessness. She emphasizes the importance of incorporating new research findings and program models as well as linking multiple systems of care to effectively meet the needs of individuals who have experienced homelessness.
Preventing homelessness: A consumer perspective
This article written by a consumer who was homeless and who is now the executive director of a supportive housing program describes the isolation, feelings of hopelessness, lack of mental health support, and violence that many homeless individuals face. The author emphasizes that the goal of all homelessness prevention efforts should be safe, stable, affordable housing in mainstream settings with high-quality services. He discusses various homelessness prevention resources and approaches and highlights the importance of involving consumers who have experienced being homeless in homelessness prevention planning and program development. He encourages consumers to work with programs to help develop a relevant foundation where consumers' autonomy is promoted and where people are challenged to reach their potential.
Effect of mental health care and shared decision making on patient satisfaction in a community sample of patients with depression
This study examined the effect that shared decision making and receipt of mental health care had on the satisfaction levels of consumers with depression. It also sought to determine whether gender affected this relationship. Researchers conclude that shared decision making and receipt of mental health care are both positively connected to consumers' satisfaction. Implications for physician education are also discussed.
Transforming the nation's health: Next steps in mental health promotion
In this commentary, A. Kathryn Power, Director of the SAMHSA Center for Substance Abuse Prevention, advocates for a public health approach to behavioral health promotion and behavioral disorder prevention. She discusses the relationship of behavioral health to overall health and presents a strategy to build resilience at the individual, family, and community levels. She also describes SAMHSA's work to attain the goals within the strategy.
Change in level of positive mental health as a predictor of future risk of mental illness
In the study described in this article, investigators found that both behavioral health promotion and protection are essential to maintaining positive behavioral health and preventing behavioral health disorders.
Mental health promotion in a reformed health care system
This article discusses the opportunity that the 2010 health care reform law provides for public health, health promotion, and disease prevention to become more central to U.S. health care. Because a cornerstone of public health is behavioral health promotion, the authors consider how this important element could fit into a reformed health care system.
Mental health promotion as a new goal in public mental health care: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention enhancing psychological flexibility
"This article reports on a study of a new treatment approach that promotes positive mental health by stressing mindfulness, acceptance, and decision-making based on one's values. The authors conclude that this treatment approach improves positive mental health by helping consumers to develop psychological flexibility and skills of acceptance and value-based action."
Community integration of adults with psychiatric disabilities and histories of homelessness
"This article describes a study in which researchers evaluated components of community integration among adults with behavioral health problems. Half of the adults in the study were assigned to independent apartments in a Housing First approach, and half to a control group. The researchers found that providing consumers with housing choice positively impacted their psychological well-being and that providing them with independent scatter-site housing had a positive impact on their social integration. They recommended additional research to explore community integration from the perspective of consumers themselves."
Housing First for long-term shelter dwellers with psychiatric disabilities in a suburban county: A four-year study of housing access and retention
This article describes a study in which behavioral health consumers with long histories of shelter use were assigned to a Housing First program or a control group. Housing First provides consumers with permanent, independent housing without being required beforehand to attain sobriety and enter into treatment. In the study, outcomes over four years were better for the group in the Housing First program.
Stigma and mental health professionals: A review of the evidence on an intricate relationship
In this paper, faculty at the University of Zurich in Switzerland examine how psychiatric professionals are involved in efforts to reduce negative ideas and misconceptions about people with behavioral health problems. They consider how psychiatric professionals can perpetuate negative ideas and misconceptions, be affected by them as a profession, and also act as agents of positive change.
How you can help fight the stigma of 'mentally ill'
In this article, actress Glenn Close describes BringChange2Mind, a national organization that she co-founded to combat negative perceptions and misconceptions about people who have behavioral health problems. In the article she outlines a set of principles that her organization developed that can be used to fight negative perceptions and misconceptions and boost social inclusion of people with behavioral health problems. These principles were announced at the 2010 meeting of the Society for Neuroscience.
Relationship between attitudes toward mental illness and provision of pharmacy services
The goal of this research study was to compare pharmacists perceptions of people with depression with views of people with schizophrenia. Researchers also wanted to examine whether pharmacists' attitudes influenced willingness to provided services to patients with behavioral health problems. Results suggest that pharmacists' surveyed held more positive attitutes toward individuals with depression versus those with schizophrenia. Pharmacists' survey responses also suggest that they are more willing to provide services to individuals with behavioral health problems if their responses reflect that they have less negative attitudes. Minority pharmacists were more willing to provide services to patients with behavioral health problems.
Peer support/peer provided services underlying processes, benefits, and critical ingredients
This article defines peer-provided services and explores research on the effectiveness of such services. The author also discusses the elements of an effective peer support system and the qualities that peer providers should possess.
Empowerment and peer support: Structure and process of self-help in a consumer-run center for individuals with mental illness
This study found that having social supports and developing a sense of self-esteem were factors that motivated people with behavioral health problems to continue to attend a self-help drop-in center. Findings from the study also suggest that people with behavioral health problems benefit from helping their peers.
Certified peer specialist roles and activities: Results from a national survey
The authors of this study surveyed 291 certified peer specialists (CPSs) from 28 states. The study found that the CPSs worked most often within their agencies, not in the community, and did most of their work with individuals, not groups. The CPSs most frequently provided support on self-determination, health and wellness, hope, communication with providers, illness management, and stigma.
Consumer-delivered services as a best practice in mental health care delivery and the development of practice guidelines
This article examines evidence related to using consumer-delivered services in behavioral health care. Based on a review of available literature, the author recommends ways to implement this type of service and discusses how the evidence and these recommendations may affect policymakers and providers.
Effects of participation in consumer-operated service programs on both personal and organizationally mediated empowerment: Results of multisite study
This study explores the effectiveness of consumer-operated service programs (COSPs). The authors explain that more evidence is needed to determine whether COSPs are effective and how they can be improved. However, they found some evidence to suggest that these programs empower consumers, and they explain that consumers who attend more often show more improvement. The authors also explain that studies of COSPs are complicated by the different types of COSPs available and by differing definitions of "empowerment." They conclude that researchers should continue to study COSPs but should more specifically study components of COSPs rather than whole programs.
Federal multi-site study finds consumer-operated service programs are evidence-based practices
This multi-site study found that behavioral health consumers who were offered the chance to participate in consumer-operated service programs (COSPs) in addition to the behavioral health services they were already receiving showed an increase in measures of well-being compared with those who received only traditional behavioral health services. Those who used the COSPs the most had the greatest gains in measures of well-being.
Mental illness stigma lingers even though people understand it's a brain disease
This Los Angeles Times article describes a new survey, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, which finds the public is more willing to view behavioral health problems as a neurobiological issue and more willing to support the need for services. However, the survey also found that this positive change in attitude does not mean that the public is more willing to associate with people who have behavioral health problems.
Mental health self-help: Consumer and family initiatives
This book includes an overview of the mental health self-help movement, which is a movement for behavioral health consumers and advocates to provide or improve treatment for people experiencing behavioral health problems. The authors provide a history of the movement, consider issues in training and funding for treatment, and suggest future directions for the movement. This book will be useful for community, clinical psychology, and public health researchers, as well as clinicians, counselors, social workers, case managers, and policymakers.
The role of peer support services in the creation of recovery-oriented mental health systems
Research shows that peer-provided services encourage a recovery-oriented mindset that empowers mental health consumers. This position statement from Mental Health America (MHA) promotes the use of peer-provided services and calls on behavioral health professionals to incorporate peer support in community-based services.
Key ingredients of peer programs identified
This briefing paper provides research-based recommendations for those building peer-support programs or managing community systems of care. It identifies program practices that promote mental health, empower consumers, and instill hope of recovery and suggests integrating peer-support into community systems of care.
The key assistance report: Focus on certified peer specialists
This report explains the important role peer specialists play in mental health recovery. The report includes a brief history of peer support related to behavioral health, steps consumers can take to become certified peer specialists, and the types of support peer specialists can provide to help others in their recovery.
Infants of depressed mothers living in poverty: Opportunities to identify and serve
Depression can affect parenting and thus the health, safety, and development of an infant under the care of a parent experiencing depression. This paper discusses ways that existing service programs for mothers living in poverty can be used to identify and provide appropriate mental health services to mothers who are depressed and caring for infants.
Stigma: Ignorance, prejudice or discrimination?
In this editorial, the author discusses research in the area of anti-stigma interventions, arguing that most evaluations have investigated whether increasing public knowledge has improved public attitudes toward and knowledge of mental health problems. The author concludes that future investigations should instead determine whether anti-stigma interventions change behavior (e.g., do employers, as a result, actually hire more people with mental health problems, or do they merely say they will.)
Stigma and discrimination against people with mental illness: A critical appraisal.
This editorial urges investigators to conduct more research on stigma related to mental health. The author suggests specific research to evaluate stigma among mental health professionals and others who often interact with people who experience mental health problems. Additionally, the author recommends evaluating anti-stigma interventions over the long term to determine whether they have sustained effects or need to be repeated.
Social capital and psychiatry: Review of the literature.
This article explores social capital as it relates to mental health. The writers provide a history and several definitions for social capital, discuss the available literature on social capital's relationship with mental health, and conclude with recommendations for further exploring this relationship. The writers also discuss how clinicians and mental health systems may benefit from an increased understanding of social capital.
Recovery as a journey of the heart
Sharing her own story of recovery from schizophrenia, and the stories of other consumers/survivors, Dr. Patricia Deegan emphasizes the importance of hope in the recovery process. She discusses the need for mental health professionals to see consumers/survivors as human beings who need supportive relationships, an expectation of recovery, and opportunities to grow and succeed.
Debt and mental health: The role of psychiatrists
This article explores the relationship between mental health problems and problem debt, as well as the role mental health professionals should play in responding to patient debt. The writers explain that in Britain the number of people who report debt is much higher among those with mental health problems. The article includes an explanation of debt and problem debt, the factors that contribute to debt, and recommendations for how mental health professionals can help patients who are in debt.
Contextual errors and failures in individualizing patient care: A multicenter study
The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs funded this study to explore how often physicians ask patients probing questions to better understand biomedical and contextual factors that may complicate patients? medical problems. Asking about these factors ensures that physicians make informed diagnoses and recommend appropriate care; however, investigators found that the physicians studied were more likely to provide appropriate care for medical conditions without complicating factors than for those with complicating factors, and they were less likely to ask about complicating contextual factors than about complicating biomedical factors.
Warrior resilience training in Operation Iraqi Freedom: Combining rational emotive behavior therapy, resiliency, and positive psychology
The article's author describes his experience teaching Warrior Resilience Training (WRT) to service members deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom. This training is offered in the combat zone to increase the resilience of combat personnel, and the author provides feedback related to WRT, as well as suggestions for better integrating and marketing behavioral health services through leaders on the front line.
Psychological resilience and postdeployment social support protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.
This article outlines the methods, results, and conclusions of a study showing that interventions to increase psychological resilience and social support may protect against mental health problems among service members returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom.
Integrating peer-provided services: A quasi-experimental study of recovery orientation, confidence, and empowerment
This study explores whether vet-to-vet support programs enhance recovery from behavioral health problems. Investigators compared results from service members in peer education and support programs to those in traditional care programs that do not include peer support. Their results suggest that a peer support component in behavioral health care improves confidence and empowerment.
The Stigma of Mental Health Problems in the Military
This article explores the barriers to seeking mental health care in the military. Investigators find that the public negatively perceives people who identify themselves as mental health consumers and that these negative perceptions prevent people from seeking treatment. The investigators report on this problem within the context of the military and discuss additional barriers that service members face once they decide to seek treatment.
The impact of Consumer-Operated Services on Empowerment and Recovery of People With Psychiatric Disabilities
This study investigates the correlation between the amount of recovery services offered and the degree of recovery attained. A total of 1,824 people with psychiatric disabilities were studied, some of whom had received peer support services in the last four months. Although peer support showed a significant correlation to recovery, there was not a strong enough association to suggest causation.
Mental health Stigma among Adolescents: Implications for School Social Workers
This study investigated adolescents with a mental health problem and their experience of stigma at school. Study results emphasize the important role school social workers, school administrators, and teachers can play by learning how to help adolescents with mental health problems succeed and overcome stigma.
Adaptability and resiliency of Military families during reunification: Initial steps of a longitudinal study
"This study attempts to identify factors that increase or decrease the risk of family problems following the initial ""honeymoon"" period that occurs upon a service member's return.
Integrating peer-provided services: a quasi-experimental study of recovery orientation, confidence, and empowerment
This study compared the effectiveness of the Vet-to-Vet program, a peer education and support program, and standard care without peer support on measures of recovery orientation, confidence, and empowerment. Study results suggest that participation in peer support may enhance personal well-being, as measured by both recovery-oriented and more traditional clinical measures.
Tools to Reduce Stigma of Mental Illness
The study, summarized in this article, piloted the use of "Narrative Enhancement Cognitive Behavioral Therapy" which was developed by Prof. Philip Yanos of City University of New York, Prof. David Roe, chair of the department of community mental health at the University of Haifa and Prof. Paul Lysaker of Indiana University School of Medicine. The results showed that subjects did experience higher self-esteem and a higher quality of life after using these tools to combat negative self perceptions (self-stigma).
Stigma experience among adolescents taking psychiatric medication
This study found that adolescents with a diagnosed mental health problem experienced stigma as a result of taking their psychiatric medications. Specifically, they experienced secrecy and shame, and they limited their own social interactions. Only four of the 40 adolescents in the study experienced no negative self-perception as a result of taking the medication. The study also found that family members and school environments can accentuate the experience of stigma or serve as a protection against it.
Brief Report: Self Stigma, Empowerment, and Percieved Legitimacy of Discrimination Among women with Mental Health Issues
"This brief report summarizes a study that sought to understand why some women with mental health problems experience negative self-perceptions while others do not. The study found that perceived legitimacy of discrimination may be a crucial determinant of a person's response to stigma.
Recovering in mental illness broadening our understanding of wellness
This book, aimed at mental health clinicians and advocates, examines what recovery means from a variety of perspectives including qualitative studies that include mental health consumers' subjective experiences. Its goal is to inform the work of professionals interested in developing a better understanding of recovery and learning how they can work with consumers to support them in their recovery.
"Finding and keeping work: specifying the issues, activities, roles and supports needed for those with
This paper is written for those trying to create programs for people with mental health problems who are looking for employment or seeking support to retain employment. The paper suggests that a holistic approach is preferred and offers individualized or customized strategies for supporting consumers in this situation.
Social inclusion and recovery: A model for mental health practice
This book, written by two mental health professionals who are also mental health consumers, focuses on how important it is for mental health professionals to work with consumers/survivors in a way that helps consumers/survivors live as fully participating members of the community. The book includes personal stories and explores the important supportive and facilitative roles that mental health professionals play as allies in the recovery process.
The Department of Defense plan to achieve the vision of the DoD task force on mental health: A report to congress
This document, written and presented to Congress in September 2007, describes the Department of Defense's plan to address the categories of recommendations in the mental health task force's vision of change through a focus on six key areas: (1) leadership, culture, and advocacy; (2) access to care; (3) quality of care; (4) resilience building and stigma reduction; (5) surveillance, research, and evaluation; and (6) care transition and coordination.
An achievable vision: Report of the Department of Defense task force on mental health
This 2007 report of the Department of Defense Task Force on Mental Health identifies four interconnected goals that the task force deemed essential to maintaining the psychological health, enhancing the resilience, and ensuring the recovery of service members and their families, all of which are essential to maintaining a ready and fully capable military force. The report provided detailed recommendations for necessary steps to achieve these goals.
Mental health and social inclusion journal
This journal focuses on promoting social inclusion for people who have mental health problems and includes ways people can enjoy fuller lives in their local communities. Journal articles explore housing, finance, spirituality, cultural diversity, friendships, and relationships and enable readers to stay up to date on innovative approaches, best practices, difficulties, dilemmas, and possible solutions.
Family network support and mental health recovery
This study sought to determine which aspects of the family support network are perceived by mental health consumers/survivors as most important to their recovery process. Study findings revealed that support and reciprocity among family members are important dimensions of a personal support network that aids in the recovery process.
IAVA and Ad Council launch historic campaign
This press release announces the launch of a historic public service announcement (PSA) campaign. Through a partnership of IAVA and the Ad Council, this groundbreaking, multiyear effort seeks to ease the readjustment for service members returning home from Iraq and Afghanistan. The PSAs direct viewers to the first and only online community exclusive to Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, www.CommunityofVeterans.org. The social networking site offers a unique platform for veterans to connect with one another confidentially and serves as a portal for comprehensive mental health resources.
Pillars of peer support: Transforming mental health systems of care through peer support services
This report summarizes the results and findings of the Pillars of Peer Support Services Summit, held at The Carter Center in November 2009. The Summit brought together representatives from States that currently provide formal training and certification for peer providers working in mental health systems. The purpose was to examine the multiple levels of support States need to provide in order to create a strong and vital peer workforce that is able to engage in mental health systems transformation.
Evolving definitions of mental illness and wellness
This article stresses the importance of adopting a more integrated view of mental and physical wellness and translating this view into concrete changes to our country's overall care delivery model. The article discusses the positive benefits that can be achieved through implementing linked approaches.
"Mental health recovery: What helps and what hinders?
This report covers research findings about the factors that can help consumers recover, as well as the factors that can negatively influence consumers and ultimately hinder their recovery. The researchers' long-term goal is to develop a core set of systems-level indicators to measure critical elements and processes of mental health service environments that facilitate recovery.
Words used to describe substance-use patients can alter attitudes, contribute to stigma
This article discusses recent research findings about the impact of language on providers' perception of people with alcohol and substance abuse problems.
Mental health issues and the media: An introduction for health professionals
Morris provides students and professionals in nursing and allied professions, psychiatry, psychology, and related disciplines with an introduction to the ways in which the media shapes our attitudes about mental health issues. Covering the press, literature, film, television, and Internet, this comprehensive text includes practical advice and recommendations on how to combat negative images for service users, healthcare workers, and media personnel.
More Social Inclusion For People With Mental Health Problems, UK
This article chronicles an effort by the British government's Health Ministry to promote social inclusion for people with mental health problems. The national directive targets vocational opportunities, social inclusion, and women-focused services.
Social Inclusion as a determinant of mental health and wellbeing
This Research Summary was developed as part of the VicHealth Mental Health Promotion Plan in 2005 to provide an overview of the impact of social inclusion on mental health.
The Social Determinants of Health: How Can a Radical Agenda Be Mainstreamed?
This article is a commentary on the World Health Organization's Report on the Social Determinants of Health (SDOH).
Crisis Residential Facilities Healthier Than Psychiatric Hosptitals? - Study Finds More Mental Health Improvements At Consumer-Managed Program
This article discusses a study that examined the effectiveness of a consumer-managed facility. The consumer-managed facility showed better outcomes for participants and better cost efficiency than a larger, county-run facility.
A randomized trial of a mental health consumer-managed alternative to civil commitement for acute psychiatric crisis
This experiment compared the effectiveness of an unlocked, mental health, consumer-managed, crisis residential program (CRP) with the effectiveness of a locked, inpatient psychiatric facility (LIPF) for adults civilly committed for severe psychiatric problems. Following screening and informed consent, participants (n = 393) were randomized to the CRP or the LIPF and interviewed at baseline and at 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year post admission. Outcomes were costs, level of functioning, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, enrichment, and service satisfaction. Treatment outcomes were compared using hierarchical linear models. Participants in the CRP experienced significantly greater improvement on interviewer-rated and self-reported psychopathology than did participants in the LIPF condition; service satisfaction was dramatically higher in the CRP condition. CRP-style facilities are a viable alternative to psychiatric hospitalization for many individuals facing civil commitment.
History of Childhood Maltreatment Linked to Higher Rates of Unemployment, Poverty: Outcomes of Aubuse and Neglect Impost Significant Cost to Individual and Society
This article discusses the results of a study that examined the long-term impacts of childhood maltreatment, both for the individual and for society.
The Role of Social Network and Support in Mental Health Service Use: Findings From the Baltimore ECA Study
A significant number of people with mental illness do not use mental health services to receive treatment for their symptoms. This study examined the hypothesis that social network and social support affect mental health service use. Increased contact with the social network and higher levels of social support were associated with greater use of general medical services. However, more social support was associated with use of fewer services within the specialty psychiatric sector.
The military's war on stigma
In this article the author addresses the stigma that is felt by many service members of the United States' Armed Forces. The author also shares information on the stigma reduction efforts being implemented by the Deparment of Defense.
Stigma: Alive and well
In this article the author addresses the various campaigns developed to reduce stigma and their effects, as well as the continued work that is necessary to continue to counter the negative attitudes associated with mental illnesses.
Compeer friends: A qualitative study of a volunteer friendship programme for people with serious mental illness
This study explored the benefits and drawbacks of an intentional friendship programme (Compeer, Inc), which develops new social relationships for people with serious mental illness by matching them in one-to-one relationships with community volunteers for weekly social activities.
Social support, activities, and recovery from serious mental illness: STARS study findings
Research on the role of social support in recovery from severe mental illness is limited and even more limited is research on the potential effects of participating in various activities. This study explores these relationships by analyzing baseline data from a 153-participant subsample in the Study of Transitions and Recovery Strategies.
The meaning and importance of employment to people in recovery from serious mental illness: Results of a qualitative study
Given the high rates of unemployment and underemployment among individuals with psychiatric disabilities, only a small number of studies have investigated the role work has in the lives of people who have been successful vocationally during their recovery from serious mental illness. This study sought to add to existing literature by determining how individuals perceive work and its effect on their recovery.
Social relationships as a decisive factor in recovering from severe mental illness
Recovery research often describes recovery from mental illness as a complex individual process. In this article a social perspective on recovery is developed. Researchers aim to ascertain which factors people regard as decisive to their own recovery and what makes them beneficial.
Stigma, poverty, and victimization: Roadblocks to Recovery for Individuals With Severe Mental Illness
This article addresses three roadblocks that exist towards recovery for individiauls with a mental illness including stigma, poverty, and victimization.
Ingroup perception and responses to stigma among persons with mental illness
Researchers tested the hypothesis that the way persons with mental illness perceive their ingroup (people with mental illness) in terms of group value, group identification and entitativity (perception of the ingroup as a coherent unit) shapes their reaction to stigma.
Changing attitudes of high school students towards peers with mental health problems
This study evaluated the effects of an antistigma program that was initiated in schools of Serbia with the aim to address and decrease discrimination of adolescents with mental disorders.
Social exclusion and mental health: Conceptual and methodological review
The concept of social exclusion is now widely used in discussions about the nature of disadvantage, and there are ongoing initiatives to promote social inclusion among those with mental health problems. To conduct a conceptual and methodological review of social exclusion, focusing initially on the origins and definitions of the concept and then on approaches to its measurement, both in general and in relation to mental health.
Unfortunately, we treat the chart:" Sources of stigma in mental health settings
This study investigated stigma in mental health settings through a mixed qualitative-quantitative design.
Passing for "normal": Features that affect the community inclusion of people with mental illness
The purpose of this study was to investigate specific features that indicate to community members that a person has a mental illness and the emotional reactions elicited by these features, in hopes of understanding barriers to the community integration of people living with mental illnesses.
Predicting behavioral intentions to those with mental illness: The role of attitude specificity and norms
The goal of this study is to investigate whether attitudes towards specific behaviours and perceived normative expectations improve prediction of behavioural intentions towards a person with mental illness.
Attitudes toward mental health services: age-group differences in Korean American adults
The present study examined the attitudes toward mental health services held by younger and older groups of Korean Americans. The findings provide important implications for interventions targeted to improve access to mental health care among minority populations. Based on the similarities and differences found between young and old, both general and age-specific strategies need to be developed in order to increase effectiveness of these programs.
"Culture in psychiatric epidemiology: Using ethnography and multiple mediator models to assess the relationship of caste with depression and anxiety in Nepal
The study aimed to identify mediators underlying caste-based disparities in mental health in Nepal. Caste-based disparities in mental health in rural Nepal are statistically mediated by poverty, lack of social support, and stressful life events. Interventions should target these areas to alleviate the excess mental health burden born by Dalit/Nepali women and men.
Mental disability and discriminatory practices: Effects of social representations of the mexican population
The aim of this study was to describe the general population's social representations of the disabled and analyze their relationship with the discriminatory practices from the state towards the mentally ill with respect to their right to health.
Psychotic symptoms and general health in a socially disadvantaged migrant community in Bologna
This cross-sectional study aims to evaluate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms among Romanian immigrants living in very poor conditions at an abandoned hotel in Bologna and to highlight the possible correlation with general health status, distress and socio-demographic characteristics.
Public stigma in relation to individuals with depression
This study assessed public stigma in relation to individuals with depression and possible factors associated with this phenomenon.
Addressing recovery from severe mental illness in clinical supervision of advanced students
This article begins a dialogue about the need to incorporate emerging knowledge about recovery as an attainable outcome for individuals with severe mental illness in curricula. The author proposes that clinical supervision from a recovery model is faced with at least four semi-distinct challenges: the detection and avoidance of stigma, the setting of consensually valid and personally relevant goals, the development of a therapeutic relationship, and the assessment of barriers to recovery and outcomes.
So I wouldn't feel like I was excluded: The learning experience in computer education for persons with psychiatric disabilities.
This paper describes an exploratory, qualitative examination of factors that aid in the acquisition of computer skills by 12 adults across 2 settings: a structured, professionally-taught program and a less structured peer-taught setting. These pilot findings highlighted the importance to teaching effectiveness of striking a balance between flexibility and structure, with computer knowledge having broader implications for social inclusion.
Metaphorical stores for education about mental health challenges and stigma
In this article, the author shares his experience using metaphorical stories when presenting to audiences. Various fables and other types of metaphorical stories are used in his presentations to bridge the gap of knowledge and to enable communication.
Perceived helpfulness of websites for mental health information : A national survey of young Australians
Despite the high risk of developing a mental disorder during adolescence, many young people fail to receive appropriate treatment from mental health professionals. Recent studies have found certain mental health information websites have improved mental health literacy and reduced symptoms of depression. However, studies exploring young people's perceptions of such resources still remain scarce. The current paper compared young people's preference for a website with self-help books and two face-to-face services-counselling and mental health services.
To seek advice or not to seek advice about the problem: The help-seeking dilemma for obsessive-compulsive disorder
The present study aimed to explore some variables hypothetically involved in the help-seeking process among patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Behavioral health needs and problem recognition by older adults receiving home-based aging services
The aims of this study were to examine behavioral health problems in a sample of older adults receiving home-based aging services, their recognition of behavioral health problems, and covariates of problem recognition.
Touch in mental health nursing: An exploratory study of nurses' views and perceptions
The aim of this study was to explore psychiatric nurses' perceptions of physical touch with people who experience mental health problems. A descriptive exploratory qualitative research design was used. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 10 registered psychiatric nurses who met the inclusion criteria and were randomly selected to participate in the study.
The concept of stigma, denoting relations of shame, has a long ancestry and has from the earliest times been associated with deviations from the 'normal', including, in various times and places, deviations from normative prescriptions of acceptable states of being for self and others. This paper dwells on modern social formations and offers conceptual and theoretical pointers towards a more convincing contemporary sociology of health-related stigma.
"Impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescents
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescent pupils? understanding.
What factors influence attitudes towards people with current depression and current mania?
In this article, the authors were interested in learning if vulnerability to psychosis and mood disorders as well as social desirability can affect attitudes towards major depressive episodes and manic episodes.
Are personal values of importance in the stigmatization of people with mental illness?
The objective of this study was to investigate the relation of responses to the Schwartz Value Scale to preferred social distance to a person with either schizophrenia or depression. The influence of personal value priorities on discrimination has been investigated in several contexts, but seldom with reference to social distance towards those with mental illness.
Desire for social distance from people with mental disorders.
The review examines measurement of social distance; characteristics of people who desire greater social distance; experiences that affect social distance; characteristics of people that elicit social distance; the effects of psychiatric labelling; the effects of causal explanations for mental disorders; and interventions to reduce social distance.
An emotive subject: Insights from social, voluntary and healthcare professionals into the feelings of family carers for people with mental health problems.
This paper explores the emotions of family carers from the perspectives of social, voluntary and healthcare professionals. Sixty-five participants were interviewed, the sample included directors, managers and senior staff from social, voluntary and healthcare organisations.
SESAMI study of employment support for people with severe mental health problems: 12-month outcomes
In the context of UK policy to promote employment for people with disability as a means to greater social inclusion, this study investigated how people with severe mental health problems fare in existing supported employment agencies. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with successful placement in work and to test the impact of working on psychological well-being in this group.
A comparison of contextual and biomedical models of stigma reduction for depression with a nonclinical undergraduate sample.
This study compared biomedical, contextual, and control stigma reduction programs to each other and to a no-program control. The main hypotheses were that the contextual program would have the greatest impact and that a match between participants' beliefs about depression and the model presented would moderate this effect.
The intricate link between violence and mental disorder
The objective of this study was to use a longitudinal data set representative of the US population to clarify whether or how severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression lead to violent behavior.
The Role of Gender in Mental-Illness Stigma: A National Experiment
In a national, Web-based survey experiment, the authors' investigated the role played by gender in moderating mental-illness stigma. Respondents read a case summary in which the gender of the person was orthogonally manipulated along with the type of disorder; the cases reflected either a male-typical disorder or a female-typical disorder.
Attitudes towards mental illness among health care students at Swedish universities - A follow-up study after completed clinical placement
The aim of the study was to examine the changes in attitudes towards mental illness after theoretical education and clinical placement among students from university programmes preparing for different kinds of health professions.
A study of stigmatized attitudes towards people with mental health problems among health professionals
The project aimed to assess stigmatized attitudes among health professionals directed towards people with mental health problems. The Attitude to Mental Illness Questionnaire was used to assess participants' attitudes towards fictitious patients from a secure forensic hospital and patients with schizophrenia and substance use disorders.
Attitudes to people with mental disorders: A mental health literacy survey in a rural area of Maharashtra, India
In this study a cross-sectional mental health literacy survey was undertaken in late 2007, which involved interviewer-administration of a questionnaire to 240 systematically sampled community members, and 60 purposively sampled village health workers.
Impact of a mental health teaching programme on adolescents
This cross-sectional study utilizes interviews with 60 adolescents treated in a wraparound program to examine: (a) the extent to which adolescents diagnosed and treated for psychiatric disorders experience mental illness stigma and cope by using secrecy, (b) the extent to which stigmatization is associated with self-concept (self-esteem, mastery, future outlook) and morale (depression), and (c) which clinical and demographic characteristics are associated with perceived stigma.
An unholy alliance: substance abuse and social exclusion among assertive outreach patients
The object of this study is to investigate the relationship between social exclusion and outcomes of people with mental illness and substance abuse problems receiving assertive outreach treatment in London.
Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users
In this study, the authors measured discrimination related to drug use, alienation, perceived devaluation, and responses to discrimination and stigma. Health measures included mental and physical health measures from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36, depression symptoms from the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale, and a sum of health conditions.
The specter of shame in substance misuse
This article provides an introduction to the concept of shame as it relates to substance misuse. Empirical research on shame and addiction and the theoretical and operational definitions that underpin them are discussed.
An investigation of stigma in individuals receiving treatment for substance abuse.
This study examined the impact of stigma on people in substance abuse treatment. Patients from fifteen residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities completed a survey focused on their experiences with stigma as well as other measures of drug use and functioning.
Implicit prejudice toward injecting drug users predicts intentions to change jobs among drug and alcohol nurses
In the current research, drug and alcohol nurses reported their level of stress working with people who inject drugs , their job satisfaction, their explicit prejudice toward people who inject drugs , and their intentions to leave drug and alcohol nursing.
Discrimination, historical loss and enculturation: Culturally specific risk and resiliency factors for alcohol abuse among American Indians
This report investigates the effects of discrimination, historical loss and enculturation on meeting diagnostic criteria for 12-month alcohol abuse among American Indians who share a common culture in the upper Midwest.
Language and the recovery advocate: Why we worry about words
In this article the author addresses the need for a "recovery-oriented vocabulary" in order to support recovery efforts and reduce the discriminatory policies that exist in communities.
Shame, not guilt, related to substance-abuse problems; Reducing feelings of shame may be key to more effective treatment
This study included three groups of participants with different levels of alcohol and drug problems. Two groups were primarily female college students about 20 years of age. The third group was comprised of predominantly male inmates from a metropolitan area jail who were, on average, 31 years of age.It appears that individuals who are prone to shame when dealing with a variety of life problems may also have a tendency to turn toward alcohol and other drugs to cope with this feeling.
The role of gender in mental-illness stigma: A national experiment
In a national, Web-based survey experiment, the authors investigated the role played by gender in moderating mental-illness stigma.
Creating change: Using the arts to help stop the stigma of mental Illness and foster social integration
In this article the author hopes to create a passion for change and suggest a way that everyone can help stop stigma. However, research is needed; a design for a study to test this hypothesis is described.
Effects of perceived discrimination on mental health and mental health services utilization among gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender persons.
In this article the authors examined the extent to which a recent experience of a major discriminatory event may contribute to poor mental health among LGBT persons.
Mental illness: Diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness
This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them.
Reducing the stigma of mental illness
A national report on mental health, produced by the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology, indicates that Canada lags behind other developed countries in awareness of mental health and mental disorders. The report points out that health-care professionals are among the groups that perpetuate the stigma associated with mental illness.
Self-labeling and its effects among adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders
This study uses mixed-method interviews with 54 US adolescents receiving integrated mental health services in a mid-sized mid-Western city to examine: (1) the extent to which they use psychiatric terms to refer to their problems ("self-label"), and (2) the relationships between adolescents' self-labeling and indicators of psychological well-being (self-esteem, mastery, depression and self-stigma).
Stigmatization, social distance and exclusion because of mental illness: The individual with mental illness as a 'stranger'
In this article, the author states a lack of knowledge of causes, symptoms and treatment options of mental disorders in the public and a lack of personal contact with affected individuals can result in prejudices and negative attitudes towards them-and subsequently in stigmatization and discrimination.
Social exclusion and mental health: Conceptual and methodological review
The aim of this study was to conduct a conceptual and methodological review of social exclusion, focusing initially on the origins and definitions of the concept and then on approaches to its measurement, both in general and in relation to mental health.
Mental health training for law enforcement professionals
The purpose of this pilot study was to determine topics of interest and preferred modalities of training for police officers in their work with persons with mental illness. Police officers across Massachusetts attending in-service mental health training were asked to rate the importance of potential mental health topics and the effectiveness of potential training modalities on a Likert-type scale.
Small business employers' views on hiring individuals with mental illness
This study investigated the beliefs of small business employers regarding hiring individuals with mental illness. Fifty-eight participants completed mail-in questionnaires concerning beliefs and willingness to hire persons with mental illness.
A cross-cultural study of employers' concerns about hiring people with psychotic disorder: implications for recovery
In this study, we tested this lay approach by comparing employers' concerns about hiring people with psychotic disorder for entry-level jobs in US and China.
Self-stigma, empowerment, and perceived legitimacy of discrimination among women with mental illness
The study sought to better understand why some people with mental illness self-stigmatize and develop low self-esteem while others remain indifferent to stigma or respond with a sense of empowerment. The authors hypothesized that a high level of perceived discrimination, little sense of identification with the group of people with mental illness, and a high level of perceived legitimacy of discrimination lead to self-stigma.
Increasing social support for individuals with serious mental illness: evaluating the compeer model of intentional friendship
In this study, the authors conducted a quasi-experimental study of Compeer, which matches community volunteers and people with SMI to increase social support.
Perceptions of discrimination among persons with serious mental illness
The authors sought to gain further perspective on discrimination experienced by persons with mental illness by comparing self-reports of discrimination due to mental illness to self-reports of discrimination due to other group characteristics, such as race, gender, and sexual orientation.
Mental illness and employment discrimination
This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities.
Stigmatization in different mental health services: a comparison of psychiatric and general hospitals.
This article compares clients from psychiatric and general hospitals according to three dimensions of stigmatization, using data from structured questionnaires (n = 555). The results reveal that when background characteristics are taken into account clients of psychiatric wards of general hospitals report less stigma expectations and social rejection experiences in comparison with their counterparts in psychiatric hospitals.
Pathways between internalized stigma and outcomes related to recovery in schizophrenia spectrum disorders
This study empirically evaluated a model for how internalized stigma affects important outcomes related to recovery. A total of 102 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders completed measures of internalized stigma, awareness of mental illness, psychiatric symptoms, self-esteem, hopefulness, and coping. Path analyses tested a predicted model and an alternative model for the relationships between the variables.
Soldier attitudes toward mental health screening and seeking care upon return from combat
This study examined soldier attitudes about postdeployment mental health screening, treatment, barriers to care, strategies for overcoming barriers, and settings, personnel and timing for conducting postdeployment mental health screening.
Correlates of mental health service use among lesbian, gay, and bisexual mothers and prospective mothers
This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the mental health services used by women in the perinatal period and to identify potential correlates of mental health service use. Providers may benefit from additional knowledge about the LBG social context that is relevant to perinatal health, and from identifying a strong referral network of skilled and affordable counsellors.
Social distance towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria
The aim of the present study was to assess the lay public's attitude (social distance) towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria and examine the factors correlating with such an attitude.
Beliefs about depression and depression treatment among depressed veterans
In this article the authors states that they studied beliefs about depression and depression treatment among patients in a randomized trial of a chronic care intervention to improve depression treatment in the Veterans Administration healthcare system (n = 395).
How stigma interferes with mental health care
Many people who would benefit from mental health services opt not to pursue them or fail to fully participate once they have begun. One of the reasons for this disconnect is stigma; namely, to avoid the label of mental illness and the harm it brings, people decide not to seek or fully participate in care. Given the existing literature in this area, recommendations are reviewed for ongoing research that will more comprehensively expand understanding of the stigma-care seeking link.
Community integration of transition-age individuals: views of young with mental health disorders
This qualitative study examines the perceptions of young adults with mental health disorders of community integration.Implications of the study discuss roles for behavioral health services in encouraging empowerment, choices, and connections so that young people with mental health disorders may achieve their preferred levels of community integration.
"In the mind of another' shame and acute psychiatric inpatient care: an exploratory study. A report on phase one: service users
The study explores service users' subjective experience of shame before, during and after psychiatric hospital admission. The research study's aims are to learn about situations that might influence quality of care because of shame experienced by individuals and groups of people.
Becoming culturally competent in ethnic psychopharmacology
This article will focus on the realm of ethnic psychopharmacology and propose a practice model for nurses to become culturally competent in the area of ethnic psychopharmacology.
The attitudes and sterotypes of supporting fields towards the persons with disabilities
The aim of this research was to establish the attitudes, the views and reactions of the helping fields (which include social workers and medical nurses) and those who aren't the part of that cathegory, towards the mentally ill people.
Fighting the stigma caused by mental disorders: past perspectives, present activities, and future directions
In this article, the author investigates the important developments, and the growing public health interest in stigma reduction. This paper reflects on the past perspectives that have led us to our current position, reviews present activities and accomplishments, and identifies challenges that the WPA Section members will face in their future efforts to reduce the stigma caused by mental disorders.
Community perceptions of mental health needs in an underserved minority neighborhood
This community-based participatory study asked residents about the meaning of mental health, their perceptions of community mental health needs, barriers to accessing mental health care, and acceptability of mental health services that are integrated in primary health clinics.
"Pharmacy Students' Attitudes Toward and Professional Interactions With People With Mental Disorders
The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of pharmacy students toward people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether stigma predicts less positive attitudes toward concordant medication counselling.
Affiliate Stigma Among Caregivers of People with Intellectual Disability or Mental Illness
In this study two hundred and ten caregivers of people with intellectual disability (CPID) and 108 caregivers of people with mental illness (CPMI) were recruited to validate the 22-item Affiliate Stigma Scale with caregiving stress, subjective burden and positive perceptions.
Stigma and coercion in the context of outpatient treatment for people with mental illnesses.
The policies and institutional practices developed to care for people with mental illnesses have critical relevance to the production of stigma as they can induce it, minimize it or even block it. This manuscript addresses two prominent and competing perspectives on the consequences for stigma of using coercion to insure compliance with outpatient mental health services.
Exploring the role and perspectives of mental health nurse practitioners following psychosocial interventions training.
The authors reports the findings of a study on the roles and perspectives of mental health nurse practitioners towards clients with enduring mental illness and their carers following completion of Psychosocial interventions (PSI) training.
Stigmatising attitude of medical students towards a psychiatry label.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a psychiatric label attached to an apparently normal person on the attitude of final year medical students at a Nigerian university.
The public's stigmatizing attitudes towards people with mental disorders: how important are biomedical conceptualizations?
This study examined hypotheses that stigmatizing attitudes are increased by use of psychiatric labels, by conceptualization of symptoms as a medical illness and by belief in genetic causes.
Reducing self-stigma in substance abuse through acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, manual development, and pilot outcomes
This article describes the development of an acceptance based treatment (Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-ACT) for self-stigma in individuals in treatment for substance use disorder.
An investigation of stigma in individuals receiving treatment for substance abuse
This study examined the impact of stigma on patients in substance abuse treatment. Patients from fifteen residential and outpatient substance abuse treatment facilities completed a survey focused on their experiences with stigma as well as other measures of drug use and functioning.
Blame, shame, and contamination: The impact of mental illness and drug dependence stigma on family members
Family members of relatives with mental illness or drug dependence or both report that they are frequently harmed by public stigma. No population-based survey, however, has assessed how members of the general public actually view family members. Hence, the authors examined ways that family role and psychiatric disorder influence family stigma.
Stigma, discrimination and the health of illicit drug users
Researchers conducted this study to measure how discrimination may affect the mental and physical health among illicit drug users. The association of stigma and discrimination with poor health among drug users suggests the need for debate on the relative risks and benefits of stigma and discrimination in this context.
Mental health provider perspectives on co-occurring substance use among severely mentally ill clients
This qualitative study explores strategies used by mental health providers to address substance use problems among clients with serious mental illnesses and their perspectives on barriers to treatment and how treatment can be improved.
How do children stigmatize people with mental illness?
The purpose of this study was to validate models of mental illness stigma on children in grades 6-8.
"Culture, children, and mental health treatment: Special section on the national stigma study-children
This introduction to a special section of the "Psychiatric Services" journal discusses the need for a nationally representative survey of public knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs on children's mental health. It also provides brief information on the survey that was conducted and its outcomes.
Public knowledge and assessment of child mental health problems: findings from the National Stigma Study-Children.
Child and adolescent psychiatry confronts help-seeking delays and low treatment use and adherence. Although lack of knowledge has been cited as an underlying reason, the authors aim to provide data on public recognition of, and beliefs about, problems and sources of help.
Perceived dangerousness of children with mental health problems and support for coerced treatment
This study examined the public's beliefs regarding the potential for harm to self and others and the public's willingness to invoke coercive or legal means to ensure treatment of children.
Mental health of young people: A global public-health challenge.
This article discusses the mental health of young people and proposes the development of a population-based, youth focused model, explicitly integrating mental health with other youth health and welfare expertise in order to remedy the situation.
Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about treatment and psychiatric medications for children with mental illness
In this study data on community responses to two treatment issues critical for children and adolescents with mental health problems are addressed: stigma associated with receiving mental health care and the willingness to use psychiatric medication.
Striving to help college students with mental health issues
In this article, the author suggests that the mental health problems in the college population appear to be increasing in number and severity. In addition, it is believed that many students do not actually seek much-needed counseling services due to lack of knowledge about mental health problems or services, stigma, or denial of the severity of the problem.
Transformation of children's mental health services: The role of school mental health
This article examines the intersection of school mental health programs and the New Freedom Commission's recommendations in order to highlight the role of school mental health in the transformation of the child and adolescent mental health system.
The experience of Black consumers in the mental health system--identifying barriers to and facilitators of mental health treatment using the consumers' perspective.
The goal of the present study was to identify barriers to and facilitators of mental heath treatment among Blacks who have a documented need for mental health services.
School mental health promotion: MindMatters as an example of mental health reform
In this article, a historical review of the development and implementation of MindMatters is used to exemplify the changes and outcomes of shifting policy and practice in school mental health promotion. Achievements include a conceptualisation of mental health as a positive concept, addressing stigma, building capacity in the education sector and developing evaluation strategies to address complex, whole-school change.
Adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression and PTSD
The objective of this study was to compare adolescents' attitudes toward schizophrenia, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stigmatizing attitudes toward these three mental disorders were evaluated in 325 senior students from medical, commercial, and grammar high schools in Croatia using a 45-item questionnaire.
Self-stigma, self-esteem and age in persons with schizophrenia
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-stigma and self-esteem in people with schizophrenia in both younger and older age groups.
Depression self-stigma: A new measure and preliminary findings
This study sought to develop the Depression Self-Stigma Scale (DSSS) and identify distinct constructs associated with depression self-stigma.
The association between perceived discrimination and underutilization of needed medical and mental health care in a multi-ethnic community sample
This study examines the association between perceived discrimination and underutilization of needed medical and mental health care, in a representative, multi-ethnic community sample. Data were derived from a cross sectional survey of 10,098 White, U.S.-born Black, African-born Black, American Indian, Hispanic, and Southeast Asian adults in Hennepin County, Minnesota.The higher prevalence of discrimination among racial and ethnic minorities may contribute to their underutilization of health care services. Future research is needed to understand the impacts of different types of discrimination on different groups.
The experience of stigma among Black mental health consumers.
This article suggest that little is known about how stigma affects Black people receiving mental health treatment. The researchers conducted qualitative interviews with public-sector Black mental health consumers to assist in the development of a consumer-based stigma intervention.
Association of perceived stigma and mood and anxiety disorders: Results from the World Mental Health Surveys
In this study, the researchers assessed the prevalence of perceived stigma among persons with mental disorders and chronic physical conditions in an international study.
Involving consumers in the development of a psychoeducational booklet about stigma for black mental health clients
This article documents the process of developing a consumer-derived psychoeducational booklet for Black adults contemplating mental health treatment. Black mental health consumers provided the content for the booklet through qualitative interviews about their experiences and then provided feedback once it was developed.
Self-stigma of people with schizophrenia as predictor of their of their adherence to psychosocial treatment
This study aimed at obtaining empirical support regarding the relationship between psychosocial treatment adherence and self-stigma.
Factors and measurement of mental Illness stigma: A Psychometric examination of the attribution questionaire
The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ). Based on responses from 774 college students, exploratory factor analyses were conducted followed by an examination of the reliability and validity of the newly formed factor scales.
Mental illness: Diagnostic title or derogatory term? (Attitudes towards mental illness) Developing a learning resource for use within a clinical call centre. A systematic literature review on attitudes towards mental illness
This systematic literature review was completed to investigate what the most common negative attitudes towards mental illness are, and the most common recommendations made to address them. The findings were used to inform teaching resources used in an National Health Service Direct call centre.
Looking below the surface: Developing critical literacy skills to reduce the stigma of mental disorders
This article addresses the continued stigmatization that occurs by clinicians and the public, and argues for one solution: altering the way students are taught, moving beyond content toward a focus on enticing attitudinal shifts, such as empathy and personal commitment to social change.
"Can antistigma campaigns be improved? A test of the impact of biogenetic vs psychosocial causal explanations on implicit and explicit attitudes to schizophrenia
The present study investigates the impact of different psychoeducational interventions on the etiology of schizophrenia (biogentic and psychosocial vs a neutral condition) and on stigmatizing attitudes in medical and psychology students.
Understanding and influencing the stigma of mental illness
In this article the researcher addressed three kinds of stigma that may act as barriers to personal aspirations: public stigma, self-stigma, and label avoidance. He also proposes methods that can be used to counter these stigmas.
The stigma of families with mental illness
This article describes family stigma, which is defined as the prejudice and discrimination experienced by individuals through associations with their relatives. The authors also present strategies to eliminate stigma and discuss implications for the training goals of psychiatrists throughout the text.
Involving Consumers in the Development of a Psychoeducational Booklet About Stigma for Black Mental Health Clients.
This article documents the process of developing a consumer-derived psychoeducational booklet for Black adults contemplating mental health treatment. Black mental health consumers provided the content for the booklet through qualitative interviews about their experiences and then provided feedback once it was developed. Results from this project suggest that the strategy of involving consumers is a feasible approach to develop psychoeducational materials that address treatment barriers in underserved populations.
Psychoeducation to address stigma in Black adults referred for mental health treatment: A randomized pilot study.
In this study, forty-two Black clients referred for outpatient treatment were randomly assigned to receive existing brochures about services or a psychoeducational booklet about stigma based on experiences of Black mental health consumers. At 3-month follow-up, clients reported that both types of information were helpful; there were no significant differences between the types of information on treatment attendance.
MILITARY: Marine commanders told to remove stress stigma
This articles provides brief information on information that was shared during a three-day Marine Corps conference in San Diego addressing post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injuries and the effects those illnesses have on family members. The author also discusses the new tactics that the military is implementing to reduce stigma related to mental illness.
Mental illness stigma and its correlates among adolescent wraparound clients
This synopsis of a presentation made during the 2007 Annual Research Conference provides information on a study that was conducted examining the mental illness stigma experiences of adolescents receiving wraparound services and identifies individual, familial, social, clinical, and treatment-related factors associated with mental illness stigma.
Gender, race-ethnicity, and psychosocial barriers to mental healthcare: An examination of perceptions and attitudes among adults reporting unmet need
This study investigates correlates of psychosocial barriers to mental health care in a population of adults reporting unmet need for mental health care, focusing on gender and race-ethnicity.
Racial/ethnic discrimination and health: Findings from community studies
The authors review the available empirical evidence from population-based studies of the association between perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination and health. This research indicates that discrimination is associated with multiple indicators of poorer physical and, especially, mental health status. However, the extant research does not adequately address whether and how exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of disease.
How Children Stigmatize People With Mental Illness
In this article, the authors discuss their review of social cognitive development and ethnic prejudice,in order to learn about mental illness stigma among children. They then summarize the literature on stigma change, focusing on how specific strategies interact with what is known about social cognitive development and prejudice. Strategies that are reviewed include education, contact, social cognitive skills training, role play for empathy, peer interaction, protest and consequences.
Gender specific correlates of stigma toward depression in a Canadian general population sample
The objective of this study was to identify gender specific demographic, clinical, knowledge and attitudinal factors associated with stigma related to depression.
Neuroscience and mental health education: A multimedia curriculum and teacher education project for middle school children
This study evaluated a mental health and drug awareness program for fifth grade students presented by the Hult and Crown Health Education Centers (HHEC and CHEC). Pre- and post-test data were collected from 197 fifth grade students randomly assigned to two treatment groups and one control group for each center.
Don't call me nuts! Coping with the stigma of mental illness
Don't Call Me Nuts! is a handbook for persons with mental illness. In its pages are discussions about dealing with self-stigma, knowing when or whether to disclose a mental illness, seven ways to foster personal empowerment, and legal and political remedies. The book explores the public's reaction to stigma through the methods of contact, education, or protest.
Can antistigma campaigns be improved? A test of the impact of biogenetic vs psychosocial causal explanations on implicit and explicit attitudes to schizophrenia
The present study investigates the impact of different psychoeducational interventions on the etiology of schizophrenia (biogenetic and psychosocial, vs a neutral condition) and on stigmatizing attitudes in medical and psychology students. Attitudes were assessed before and after the interventions on an explicit level using the stereotype questionnaire and the Social Distance Scale as well as on an implicit level, using the Implicit Association Test.
Anti-stigma films and medical students attitudes towards mental illness and psychiatry: Randomised controlled trial
The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial of the effects of two anti-stigma films on medical students? attitudes to serious mental illness and psychiatry. Attitudes to serious mental illness, perceived dangerousness, social distance and psychiatry, were measured before and after watching the films and at 8 weeks.
Does mental illness stigma contribute to adolescent standardized patients? discomfort with simulations of mental illness and adverse psychosocial experiences?
Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients? (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical association between simulation discomfort and mental illness stigma.
Factors and measurement of mental illness stigma: A psychometric examination of the attribution questionnaire
A number of scales are employed to measure mental illness stigma, but many fail to have documented or adequate psychometric properties. The purpose of this study was to further evaluate the psychometric properties of one such measure, the Attribution Questionnaire (AQ).
Public stigma in relation to individuals with depression
This study was conducted in Brazil to assess public stigma in relation to individuals with depression and possible factors associated with this phenomenon.
Children's stigmatization of childhood depression and ADHD: Magnitude and demographic variation in a national sample
The objective of this study was to estimate the magnitude of stigmatizing attitudes toward peers with depression or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a national sample of children ages 8 to 18 and to examine variation in level of stigma by school location, region of the United States, grade level, race/ethnicity, or sex.
Assessment of need for a school-based mental health programme in Nigeria: Perspectives of school administrators
In this study key informants from southwest Nigeria were interviewed to identify their perspectives on child mental illness and needs for a school mental health programme.
Needs and preferences for receiving mental health information in an African American focus group sample
The purpose of this study is to better understand the mental health/illness information and service delivery preferences among African American residents of Baltimore. Researchers conducted four focus groups (n = 42) among African American adults currently unconnected with the mental health system.
Mental disorders stigma in the media: review of studies on production, content, and influences
This article analyzes two decades of research regarding the mass media's role in shaping, perpetuating, and reducing the stigma of mental illness. It concentrates on three broad areas common in media inquiry: production, representation, and audiences. The analysis reveals that descriptions of mental illness and the mentally ill are distorted due to inaccuracies, exaggerations, or misinformation.
Adolescents' reactions to universal and indicated prevention programs for depression: Perceived stigma and consumer satisfaction
This study examines reported stigma and program satisfaction following two school-based interventions aimed at preventing depression in 532 middle adolescents. The interventions were conducted either across entire classes by classroom teachers (universal delivery) or in small high risk groups by mental health professionals (indicated delivery).
Current Issues in undergraduate psychiatry education: The findings of a qualitative study
The purpose of this article is to identify the current issues in undergraduate psychiatric education in the United Kingdom for lead teachers at United Kingdom medical schools.
Stigmatizing attitudes and beliefs about treatment and psychiatric medications for children with mental illness
Researchers interviewed a representative sample of noninstitutionalized adult participants of the U.S. population to obtain data on community responses to two treatment issues critical for children and adolescents with mental health problems are addressed: stigma associated with receiving mental health care and the willingness to use psychiatric medication.
The self-stigma of mental illness : Implications for self-esteem and self-efficacy
The relationships between elements of a self-stigma model and self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression are examined in this study. Self-stigma is distinguished from perceived stigma (stereotype awareness) and presented as a three-level model: stereotype agreement, self-concurrence, and self-esteem decrement.
Social distance towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria
The aim of the present study was to assess the lay public's attitude (social distance) towards people with mental illness in southwestern Nigeria and examine the factors correlating with such an attitude. There is emerging evidence of a high level of social distance and stigmatization of mental illness in sub-Saharan Africa. There is need to incorporate anti-stigma educational programmes into the mental health policies of countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Such policy should include community education regarding the causation, manifestation, treatment and prognosis of mental illness.
Health care providers' perspective of the gender influences on immigrant women's mental health care experience
The primary goal of this study was to explore how contextual factors intersect with race, gender, and class to influence the ways in which immigrant women seek help and to increase awareness and understanding of what would be helpful in meeting the mental health care needs of the immigrant women.
Mental illness careers in an era of change
In this article, the authors use data from 238 persons treated in Vermont State Hospital during the 1950s to evaluate several fundamental career assumptions and to illustrate how different predictors are contextualized by the career.
Predictors of depression stigma
The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the predictors of personal and perceived stigma associated with depression.
Stigmatization and self-esteem of persons in recovery from mental illness: The role of peer support
This article studies whether peer support among clients can moderate this negative link, and to what extent. Following the buffering hypothesis on stress and social support, it was expected that the association between stigmatization and self-esteem would be less among persons experiencing greater peer support.
Comparison of African-Caribbean and White European young adults' conceptions of schizophrenia symptoms and the diagnostic label
This study aimed to investigate recognition and evaluation of schizophrenic symptoms across African-Caribbean and white European individuals. One hundred and twenty eight adult students from London colleges completed a questionnaire assessing stigma beliefs, evaluation of symptoms as mental illness and help-seeking beliefs, in response to symptom vignettes.
Getting Beyond "Don?t Ask; Don?t Tell": An Evaluation of US Veterans Administration Post deployment Mental Health Screening of Veterans Returning From Iraq and Afghanistan
In this study the authors sought to evaluate outcomes of the Veterans Administration (VA) Afghan and Iraq Post-Deployment Screen for mental health symptoms. Among 750 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans who were referred to a VA medical center and 5 associated community clinics, 338 underwent post deployment screening; 233 (69%) screened positive for mental health problems.
Randomized study of different anti-stigma media
This study was designed to assess if computer-assisted anti-stigma interventions can be effective in reducing the level of psychiatric stigma in a sample of special education university students. This study demonstrated that computers can be an effective mean in changing attitudes of students toward psychiatric patients.
Ward features affecting stigma experiences in contemporary psychiatric hospitals: A multilevel study
In this article, a multilevel design is used to explore the link between characteristics of the treatment context and stigma experiences, controlling for client characteristics. In terms of policy, this kind of study could highlight factors in the immediate treatment that could be changed to reduce stigma experiences for clients of mental health services.
Stigma as related to mental disorders
The authors begins this review with a multidisciplinary discussion of mechanisms underlying the strong propensity to devalue individuals displaying both deviant behavior and the label of mental illness. The article concludes with a brief review of multilevel efforts to overcome mental illness stigma, spanning policy and legislation, alterations in media depictions, changed attitudes and practices among mental health professionals, contact and empathy enhancement, and family and individual treatment.
Cultural differences in access to care
As high-profile reviews have appeared and international interest has grown, sophisticated studies of the U.S. population continue to document racial and ethnic disparities in initiation of mental health care and in continuity of care. Many explanations focus on cultural factors: trust and treatment receptiveness, stigma, culturally distinctive beliefs about mental illness and mental health, culturally sanctioned ways of expressing mental health-related suffering and coping styles, and client preferences for alternative interventions and treatment-seeking pathways, as well as unresponsive programs and providers.
Reliability of a composite measure of social inclusion for people with psychiatric disabilities
This study aims to assess the reliability of the components of a proposed composite measure of social inclusion for people with psychiatric disabilities. The interview covered sociodemographics, domain specific socially valued role functioning, social support, stigma experiences, integration within the immediate
psychosocial rehabilitation community, and integration within the wider neighborhood community.
Overcoming stigma: Involving families in medical student and psychiatric residency education
The primary purpose of this article is to present a possible mechanism for increasing communication about psychiatric matters such as diagnoses, treatment, and stigma between the physicians, including psychiatrists, and the families of persons with mental illness through a NAMI presentation.
Psychosis and the experience of employment
This study explored the experiences of people diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in relation to paid employment. Eight participants with experience of paid employment were interviewed. The data were analyzed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) [Smith et al. (In: Murray, Chamberlain, editors) Qualitative health psychology, 1999].
Challenging stigma around mental illness and promoting social inclusion using the performing arts
This article outlines the rationale, evidence base, method and qualitative evaluation of a project that uses the performing arts to challenge the stigma surrounding mental illness and promote social inclusion of people with mental health problems.
Reducing stigma by meeting and learning from people with mental illness
This study examines the effects of a public education program, developed in large part by consumers of mental health services, on the attitudes of high school students toward people with mental illnesses. A 1-hour informational session developed and facilitated by consumers of mental health services can significantly affect the attitudes of adolescents toward people with major mental illnesses.
Associations of multiple domains of self-esteem with four dimensions of stigma in schizophrenia
In this article, the authors research suggests global self-esteem among persons with schizophrenia may be negatively affected by stigma or stereotyped beliefs about persons with severe mental illness. Less clear however, is whether particular dimensions of self-esteem are linked to particular domains of stigma.
'I'd rather not take Prozac': Stigma and commodification in antidepressant consumer narratives
This article explores the idea that narrative is the primary vehicle through which antidepressant consumers negotiate their sense of identity and reality. Antidepressant consumers represent a unique consumer culture because of the stigma that society attaches to mental illness. Recent media attention, including direct to consumer (DTC) advertising, appears to decrease the stigma surrounding antidepressant use while at the same time commodifying and branding them for mass consumption.
Campus mental health: Know your rights
Campus Mental Health: Know Your Rights is a guide for college and university students to the legal rights one has when seeking mental health
services. It also explains what can be expected in interactions with mental health service providers and what obligations one might have.
The evaluation of a short group programme to reduce self-stigma in people with serious and enduring mental health problems
This study examined the impact of a 6-week group programme designed to reduce self-stigma in a group of service users with serious and enduring mental health problems. Twenty participants were assessed prior to the commencement of the group and immediately following its cessation. The results record a significant reduction in the stigma following the group and also non-significant increases in the participants' levels of self-esteem, self-acceptance and overall psychological health.
The effect of first year mental health fieldwork on attitudes of occupational therapy students towards people with mental illness
This article suggest that despite recent initiatives to reduce stigma towards people with mental illnesses, negative attitudes persist both in the community and among health professionals. Fieldwork experience has been identified as the most powerful way of modifying the attitudes of health professional students. Research to date suggests that later placements tend to have a more positive effect on attitudes than do earlier placements.
The reccurrence of an illusion: The concept of "Evil" in forensic psychiatry
The author notes an increased interest in the concept of "evil" in the fields of psychiatry and psychology. It is argued that evil can never be scientifically defined because it is an illusory moral concept, it does not exist in nature, and its origins and connotations are inextricably linked to religion and mythology. Use of the term in psychiatry will contribute to stigmatization of mental illness.
Perceived discrimination and the well-being of immigrant adolescents
This study draws on the social-discount and social-rejection hypotheses to examine the effect of perceived discrimination on immigrant youths? depressive moods, self-efficacy, and preferences for in-group socialization experiences. Data from a panel study of immigrant young adolescents (aged 12?18) who came to Israel from countries of the former Soviet Union during the preceding 6 years was used (n = 732).
Insight and psychosis: Comparing the perspectives of patient, entourage and clinician
In this study, the authors hypothesized that socio-cultural factors influence insight in patients with schizophrenia. The authors tested this hypothesis through comparison of insight in 18 triads, each composed of a patient, a family member and a clinician. The sample consisted of patients who were first diagnosed with psychosis in the last two years, and who were either immigrants from Africa or the Caribbean Islands, or Canadian born. Insight was assessed by analysis of narratives collected from patients, family members and clinicians for a research project on the negotiation of treatment.
Unmet needs and treatment seeking in high users of mental health services: Role of illness perceptions
The aim of the present study was to investigate how illness perceptions in high users of mental health services were related to unmet needs and treatment-seeking behaviours.
Attitudes towards people with mental illness: A cross-sectional study among nursing staff in psychiatric and somatic care
The aim of the present study was to investigate attitudes towards mental illness and people with mental illness among nursing staff working in psychiatric or somatic care. The sample consisted of 120 registered or assistant nurses who were interviewed about intimacy with mental illness and attitudes about seven different mental illnesses.
Perceived stigma and mental health care seeking
This study used cross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of undergraduate and graduate students (N=2,782) at one university. A five-item scale was used to assess perceived public stigma toward mental health service use. Perceived need for help in the past 12 months and current presence of depressive and anxiety disorders were also assessed.
Mental health problems in rural contexts: A broader perspective
The objectives of this article are to expand and comment upon a recent review in Australian Psychologist of the literature in relation to mental health problems in rural contexts by Jackson et al. (2007). In this article the authors reviews recently published qualitative research on the help-seeking attitudes and experiences of rural Australian adolescents.
News media portrayal of mental illness
A study of 1999 newspapers revealed that dangerousness is the most common theme of stories about mental illnesses. In contrast, stories of recovery or accomplishment were found to be rare. The ratio of negative to positive stories involving mental illness decreased between 1989 and 1999, but negative stories continued to far outnumber positive ones. The potential influence of these patterns of news coverage on public attitudes and public policy are discussed.
The influence of culture on immigrant women's mental health care experiences from the perspectives of health care providers
In this article, the authors suggest that although cultural knowledge and practices influence immigrant women's coping choices and strategies, awareness of social and economic differences among diverse groups of immigrant women is necessary to improve the accessibility of mental health care for immigrant women.
Use of health care services for psychological distress by immigrants in an urban multicultural milieu
This article finds that research in the United States tends to attribute low rates of use of mental health services by immigrants to economic barriers. The author's purpose of the study was to examine this issue in the context of Canada's universal health care system.
Immigrant perceptions of discrimination in health care: The California Health Interview Survey 2003
In this article the authors examined whether foreign-born persons are more likely to report discrimination in healthcare than U.S.-born persons in the same race/ethnic group, whether the immigration effect varies by race/ethnicity, and whether the immigration effect is "explained" by sociodemographic factors.
Greek police officers' attitudes towards the mentally ill
This study examines the attitudes of the Greek police towards the mentally ill, and the problems that arise during the transfer of mentally ill people to psychiatric emergency departments.
Survey of attitudes of mental health professionals in Singapore towards at-risk mental states
An anonymous survey containing a clinical vignette and questions related to the diagnosis and management of ARMS was sent out to all registered psychiatrists and psychiatric trainees in Singapore.
Stigma and beliefs of efficacy towards traditional Chinese medicine and Western psychiatric treatment among Chinese-Americans
In this study the authors examined community attitudes of efficacy and shame to investigate the factors that may underlie mental health service underutilization among Chinese Americans.
Family heritage and depression guides: Family and peer views influence adolescent attitudes about depression
In this study, 15 adolescents were interviewed to examine how the views and behaviours of others influence teens' decisions about seeking care for depression.
Psychological distress among Latino family caregivers of adults with schizophrenia: The roles of burden and stigma
This study examined the relation between caregivers' mental health and perceived burden and stigma and characteristics of the patient and caregiver within the Latino community.
Americans attitudes toward mental health treatment seeking: 1990-2003
This study examined recent trends in Americans' attitudes toward mental health treatment seeking and beliefs about the effectiveness of such treatment.
Higher education and psychiatric disabilities: National survey of campus disability services
This article reports the results of a survey of disability services offices at colleges and universities in 10 States.
Family views of stigma
The views of 487 members of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) concerning stigma were surveyed in 20 different States. Almost all identified stigma as a problem for their mentally ill relatives and for families in general.
Language and stigma
Editorial letter discussing the paper, "'Difficult Patients in Mental Health Care: A Review." The author points out that the term "difficult patient" can be stigmatizing.
The effect of healing gardens and art therapy on older adults with mild to moderate depression.
This study evaluated the effect of garden walks alone, garden walks with guided imagery, and art therapy on mild to moderate depression in older adults. Focus group interviews at the end of the 6-week intervention suggest that all 3 interventions were helpful to participants with mild to moderate depression.
Gender specific correlates of stigma toward depression in a Canadian general population sample.
The objectives of this research were to identify gender specific demographic, clinical, knowledge and attitudinal factors associated with stigma related to depression.
Reducing stigma and discrimination against older people with mental disorders: A technical consensus statement
This technical consensus statement is jointly produced by the Old Age Psychiatry section of the World Psychiatric Association and the World Health Organization, and other non-governmental organizations. It is intended to be a tool for (i) promoting debate at all levels on the stigmatisation of older people with mental disorders; (ii) outlining the nature, causes and consequences of this stigmatisation; and (iii) promoting and suggesting policies, programmes and actions to combat this stigmatisation.
Community integration for older adults with mental illnesses: Overcoming barriers and seizing opportunities
This report is the third in a series of reports prepared by the National and Statewide Coalitions to Promote Community-Based Care under Olmstead project. It is designed to help State and local Olmstead coalitions understand the barriers that older adults face and learn about the innovative solutions being adopted and adapted across the country.
Chapter 5 of "Mental health: A report of the Surgeon General": Older adults and mental health
This chapter of the Surgeon General's report on mental health addresses various areas of interest for the older adult population, specifically considering mental disorders in older people - their diagnosis and treatment, and the various risk factors that may complicate the course or outcome of treatment.
Rural and frontier mental and behavioral health care: Barriers, effective policy strategies, best practices
This report focuses on the following areas: barriers to mental and behavioral health service delivery in rural America, model programs and effective activities for rural America, model policy strategies for rural mental and behavioral health care delivery, the role telehealth should play in service delivery to rural America, and the role that State Offices of Rural Health and other State and local organizations should play in service delivery to rural America.
A survey of preferred terms for users of mental health services.
This survey was conducted to determine how users of mental health services would like to be addressed by professionals. Three hundred two persons participating in a variety of inpatient and outpatient psychiatric programs were surveyed.
Campus mental health services: Recommendations for change
College officials indicate that the number of students with serious mental illnesses has risen significantly. Media attention surrounding several high profile suicides has opened discussion of mental illness on campus. The authors summarize literature on college students and mental illness, including barriers to service receipt. Recommendations to improve campus-based responses for persons with a serious mental illness are presented on the basis of well-accepted service principles.
The journey of Native American people with serious mental illness: Executive summary
This report describes the first national conference on Native American people with serious mental illness. Describes meeting of State, tribal, and Federal mental health officials; providers; families; and consumers to tackle mental health delivery issues for Native Americans and to overcome barriers for developing coordinated, efficient, and culturally relevant systems of care.
Evaluating the effectiveness of a consumer-provided mental health recovery education presentation
The current study investigated the effectiveness of the In Our Own Voice (IOOV) mental health education program in improving knowledge and attitudes about mental illnesses.
Solutions to discrimination in work and housing identified by people with mental illness
This study examines perceived solutions to discrimination in housing and employment situations.
Will filmed presentations of education and contact diminish mental illness stigma?
This study examines the impact of two versions of anti-stigma programs-education and contact-presented on videotape.
Mental illness and employment discrimination
This article presents a review of recent research that seeks to determine employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. In this study, researchers take an extensive view of the stigmatization process to include cognitive, attitudinal, behavioral, and structural disadvantages.
Workplace effects of the stigmatization of depression
Employers have previously been shown to hold negative attitudes toward mental illness. The purpose of this survey of human resource officers in UK companies was to ascertain whether these attitudes prejudice employment opportunities for subjects with mental illnesses--specifically, depression--and, if so, some of the beliefs upon which these attitudes are based.
Effects of an antistigma program on medical students' attitudes toward people with schizophrenia
The purpose of this study was to examine whether an antistigma program which consists of education, contact, and viewing a film that depicts an individual with schizophrenia, can change attitudes towards people with schizophrenia.
The sympathetic discriminator: Mental illness, hedonic costs, and the ADA
Discrimination against people with mental illness occurs in part because of how those with mental illness can make other people feel.Thus, a central basis for discrimination in this context is what I call hedonic costs. Hedonic costs are affective or emotional costs: an influx of negative emotion or loss of positive emotion. In addition, the phenomenon of emotional contagion, which is one source of hedonic costs, makes discrimination against people with mental illness peculiarly intractable.
Stigma interventions and research for international health
This paper is one of several delivered at an international conference, Stigma and Global Health: Developing a Research Agenda, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health's Fogarty International Center (FIC) in September 2001. The paper includes a definition of health-related stigma and six research objectives, based on the stigma definition.
"It's important to be proud of the place you live in": Housing problems and preferences of psychiatric survivors.
This paper reports findings from a series of focus group meetings held with survivors of mental illness to address issues concerning housing preferences and housing needs.
The Carter Center Mental Health Program: Addressing the public health crisis in the field of mental health through policy change and stigma reduction.
This article examines the public health crisis in the field of mental health and focuses on The Carter Center Mental Health Program?s initiatives, which work to increase public knowledge of and decrease the stigma associated with mental illnesses.
Advocacy for mental health: Roles for consumers and family organizations and governments
The World Health Organization urges countries to become more active in advocacy efforts to put mental health on governments' agendas. Health policy makers, planners and managers, advocacy groups, consumer and family organizations, through their different roles and actions, can move the mental health agenda forward. This paper outlines the importance of the advocacy movement, describes some of the roles and functions of the different groups and identifies some specific actions that can be adopted by Ministries of Health.
Association between community and client characteristics and subjective measures of the quality of housing
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between subjective perceptions of the quality of housing among mental health consumers and both client characteristics and objective measures of the client's neighborhood.
Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care
This study provides an initial look at the mental health of members of the Army and the Marine Corps who were involved in combat operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Our findings indicate that among the study groups there was a significant risk of mental health problems and that the subjects reported important barriers to receiving mental health services, particularly the perception of stigma among those most in need of such care.
Design and initial results from a supported education initiative: The Kansas Consumer as Provider program
This article describes the Consumer as Provider (CAP) Training program at the University of Kansas School of Social Welfare, which creates opportunities for individuals with severe psychiatric disabilities to develop knowledge and skills to be effective as human service providers.
Church-based support groups for African American families coping with mental illness: Outreach and outcomes
This study examined the outreach efforts used to provide information about support groups to congregants as well as the participation outcomes reported by families who attended support group meetings.
Religion and spirituality in the lives of people with serious mental illness
Although there is some literature that documents the relationship of religiousness and spirituality with health and well-being, far fewer studies have examined this phenomenon for people with serious mental illness. In this study, people with serious mental illness completed self-report measures of religiousness and spirituality.
Perspectives of people with psychiatric disabilities on employment disclosure
A qualitative study, including a focus group and individual interviews, was conducted to gather data from people with psychiatric disabilities/labels regarding employment disclosure. Major findings include the significant impact of disability identity (does the participant think they have a disability?), and the importance of appropriate job matching as a disclosure strategy.
Structural stigma in state legislation
This article discusses examples of structural stigma that results from state governments' enactment of laws that diminish the opportunities of people with mental illness.
Social network's healing power is borne out in poorer nations
This article describes the findings of a 3-decade-long study by the World Health Organization (WHO) which found that mental health consumers in poorer countries have higher rates of recovering from schizophrenia. Key findings described explore the role that family support, culture, and other social networks have on individuals with schizophrenia. This article discusses the differences in the roles of doctors, the invaluable role of families, and the importance of integrating social and cultural supports with medicine to achieve more positive outcomes.
A family's painful journey
This article discusses the issues faced in Maryland in seeking assistance for children with severe mental illness. It focuses on State budget cuts for wraparound mental health coverage.
At issue: Stop the stigma: Call mental illness a brain disease
Educating the public that mental illness is a brain disease is a popular strategy for combating mental illness stigma. Evidence suggests that while such an approach reduces blame for mental illness, it may unintentionally exacerbate other components of stigma, particularly the benevolence and dangerousness of stigmas. Researchers propose a balanced approach that combats the various myths about mental illness with factual information.
Structural levels of mental illness stigma and discrimination
In this article, using a sociological paradigm, we apply the concepts of structural discrimination to broaden our understanding of stigmatizing processes directed at people with mental illness.
Stigmatization, discrimination, and mental health: The impact of multiple identity status
The authors present the empirical characteristics of the Experience of Discrimination Scale (EDS) using baseline data from the Center for Mental Health Services-funded, multisite Consumer Operated Services Project. Specific hypotheses focused on the influence of multiple identity status on reports of discrimination. Data indicated that discrimination caused by mental disability was associated with level of psychiatric symptoms and perceived social rejection as a result of mental illness, whereas discrimination for other reasons was associated with broader quality of life and social interaction indicators. The clinical and policy implications of findings are discussed.
Report of the Surgeon General's conference on children's mental health: A national action agenda
This report introduces a blueprint for addressing children's mental health needs in the United States.
American with Disabilities Act of 1990
The current text of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [?ADA?], as amended.
Consumer experience of stigma: A national survey
This article summarizes the results of a nationwide survey of 1,301 mental health consumers concerning their experience of stigma and discrimination.
Mental health in the workplace: An issue for one in five employees
This report was developed by a committee of engaged citizens in Minnesota who were asked to examine how the mental health issues
of employees impact the workplace and to identify successful strategies or models for addressing the mental health challenges of those working and for accommodating
those with serious mental health problems who
want to work.
President's New Freedom Commission on Mental Health
The Commission?s mission was to study the United States mental health service delivery system, including both private and public sector providers. The Commission advised the President on methods to improve the system. The Commission?s goal was to recommend improvements that will enable adults with a serious mental illness and children with a serious emotional disturbance to live, work, learn, and participate fully in their communities.
Overlooked and underserved: Elders in need of mental health care
A brief article providing information on the needs of the elder community.
Housing and mental health: Reducing housing difficulties for people with mental illness
This paper outlines key issues in housing provision for people with serious mental illness and suggests a policy framework. It draws on the limited research available on the housing needs of people with mental illness and on information available from the mental health sector. It is intended to generate discussion and better understanding of the issues in the mental health and housing sectors.
Drop the stigma: To keep kids from lashing out, parents must urge them to accept help
An article in which Tipper Gore addresses the need for parents and adults to "erase the stigma that prevents our kids from getting the help they need for their mental health."
An attribution model of public discrimination towards persons with mental illness
In this study, researchers build on previous work by developing and estimating a model of the relationships between causal attributions (e.g., controllability, responsibility), familiarity with mental illness, dangerousness, emotional responses (e.g., pity, anger, fear), and helping and rejecting responses. The results from this study also suggest that familiarity with mental illness reduces discriminatory responses.
Challenging two mental illness stigmas: Personal responsibility and dangerousness
This study set out to examine path models that explain how these attitudes lead to discriminatory behavior and to assess the impact of antistigma programs on components of personal responsibility and dangerousness models.
Children's beliefs about people labeled mentally ill
A group of 104 third-grade students told stories in response to pictures of adults labeled mentally ill, physically disabled, or unlabeled, and answered questions regarding expected behavior of these adults. Results indicate that children of this age hold more overall negative attitudes about adults labeled mentally ill than about those designated as physically disabled or nondisabled.
Dispelling the stigma of schizophrenia: II. The impact of information on dangerousness
This study addressed a relatively neglected topic in schizophrenia: identifying methods to reduce stigma directed toward individuals with this disorder. The study investigated whether presentation of information describing the association between violent behavior and schizophrenia could affect subjects' impressions of the dangerousness of both a target person with schizophrenia and individuals with mental illness in general.
Empowerment and serious mental illness: Treatment partnerships and community opportunities
Two targets of empowerment are discussed in this paper: treatment partnerships and community opportunities. Strategies that enhance treatment partnerships include provider endorsement of recovery rather than promoting an approach that suggests poor prognoses, treatment plans that are collaborative rather than unilateral decision making that is perceived as coercive, and treatment services provided in the person's community rather than geographically or psychological distant institutions.
From whence comes mental illness stigma?
This paper seeks to answer two fundamental questions: What is the basis of the current form of mental illness stigma? and Why do western cultures stereotype people with mental illness as dangerous, incompetent and blameful, rather than something else?
The paradox of self-stigma and mental illness
Published narratives by persons with serious mental illness eloquently describe the harmful effects of stigma on self-esteem and self-efficacy. However, a more careful review of the research literature suggests a paradox; namely, personal reactions to the stigma of mental illness may result in significant loss in self-esteem for some, while others are energized by prejudice and express righteous anger.
What factors explain how policy makers distribute resources to mental health services?
Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources.
Prevalence, severity, and unmet need for treatment of mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health surveys
Little is known about the extent or severity of untreated mental disorders, especially in less-developed countries. This study estimates prevalence, severity, and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in 14 countries (6 less developed, 8 developed) in the World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative.
Implications of educating the public on mental illness, violence, and stigma
This study examined how two types of public education programs influenced how the public perceived persons with mental illness, their potential for violence, and the stigma of mental illness.